History- Medicine through time key figures

gemma.bell
Flashcards by , created over 4 years ago

Key figures in GCSE medicine through time and what they did.

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gemma.bell
Created by gemma.bell over 4 years ago
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Question Answer
Vesalius Dissected corpses. Disproved some of Galen's work such as the the jaw being one bone in humans, not two (like apes).
Florence Nightingale Improved hospital in the Crimean War through cleanliness and organisation and set up training schools for nurses.
William Beveridge Wrote the Beveridge Report which contributed to the introduction of the NHS.
Aneurin Bevan Labour Minister for Health. Set up the NHS in 1946 partly due to the Beveridge Report
Alexander Fleming Discovered the first antibiotic (penicillin) by chance. He left some petri dishes out when he went on holiday and found mould growing on them and realised the mould (which was penicillin) was killing the germs.
Erlich Found the first magic bullet (Salvarson 606) which treated syphilis.
Edwin Chadick Wrote a report on the health of the poor which led to the 19th Century Public Health Acts.
John Snow Realised cholera was a water borne disease through geographical observation and turned off the Broadstreet Pump which had been spreading cholera in the local area,
Mary Seacole Nurse in the Crimean War who didn't get the funding to join Nightingale. Opened a hotel where a battle was being fought, providing food, drinks, warm clothes, boots, and saddles. She nursed sick and wounded men on the battle field.
Joseph Lister Discovered the disinfectant carbolic acid which was at first opposed due to irritating the skin and unreliable results due to other doctors using it wrong.
Galen Built on Hippocrates work and developed the Theory of opposites. Proved the brain controlled the body with his famous pig experiment. Often made mistakes due to dissecting animals.
Pare Used ligatures instead of cauterizing. Discovered a natural ointment made from egg yolks, oil of roses and turpentine instead of boiling oil. This is an example of chance as he had to experiment after running out of oil and found it to work much better.
Louis Pasteur The first to suggest Germ Theory in 1861, discovered using sterile flasks and wine. Proved heat killed germs. Did not link germs to human disease. Discovered chicken cholera vaccine by chance. Discovered vaccine for rabies.
Edward Jenner Developed a smallpox vaccine to replace inoculation. He realised milkmaid who had had cowpox didn't get smallpox and infected James Phipps with cowpox, and after symptoms passed infected him with smallpox which he did not catch.
Florey and Chain Developed penicillin in World War Two, Fleming couldn't as he did not get the funding.
Hippocrates Came up with the theory of the Four Humours which was wrong but logical. Encouraged careful observation and recording. We still use the Hippocratic Oath today: 'I will help my patients not profit from them'.
Herophilus Believed the brain controls the body and identified parts of the stomach.
Harvey Proved the heart pumps blood around the body (blood is not used up) by experimenting on cold blooded animals. He tried to pumps liquids past the valves in the veins but found it wasn't possible to do so.
Robert Koch Started to link diseases to the specific microbe that caused the disease. He experimented with anthrax and found the bacteria that caused it, injecting a mouse to prove his theory. He also identified cholera bacteria.
James Simpson Discovered the anaesthetic chloroform which was opposed at first mostly by Christians who believed pain was God given and should be suffered. It became more accepted and popular after Queen Victoria used it in childbirth.