1.1 creates awareness
knowledge about SRH
1.1.1 health consequences, how
to prevent, how/where to
attitudes/values and encourages
behavioral adoption (adopting
1.3 creates an agenda for public debates
●“A mass communication programme dealing with sensitive issues socially validates open discussion of these issues, thus making them part of the everyday agenda”
- so when a campaign deals with sensitive issues such sex or HIV/AIDs it allows
for a discussion of these issues which is very important because sometimes
stigma and shame or taboo stop people from talking about these issues
1.3.1 as SRH topics can be
sensitive to societies
2 how MM can be effective in communicating SRH info?
1.Mass media must be supported by
interpersonal and group communication.
community leaders, public opinion leaders and decision-makers can lead to
should use diverse broadcast and distribution channels, combining television,
radio, print and traditional media, in order to maximize penetration and
that a campaign is trying to convey has to be CLEAR.
18.104.22.168 1)Determining knowledge of target audience before
program implementation begins 2)Finding adequate
control groups… a lack of comparative perspective
3)Isolating programme communication– change not
always directly attributed to intervention , 4)Instability
that impacts audience exposure
3.2 1. What specific challenges might characteristics
of either the audience or the environment pose?
2. How can the media used in any given campaign
be customized to better reach the target audience
or to better fit the context within which that
audience exists? 3. Other media: what are the
effect can the other media have on attitudes,
practices, and beliefs?
3.2.1 cannot to be effective
SRH-related ideas if
the contents ignore
religions contexts of
contents must be
3.2.2 even though the mass media
succeeded in changing
ideas/encouraging certain behavioral
changes, if SRH services were not
available, the targeted population
can hardly adopt those
recommended behaviors and
therefore does not help improve SRH.
The mass media (communication) can
be useful in improving SRH only when
SRH services are accessible, available,
affordable to the population.
3.2.3 have to change the mode of mediums, according
to the targeted audience. basically socioeconomic
status and geographical characteristics. Afford to
have TV/radio? education level/literacy ...
3.2.4 The mass media
contents not particularly
for SRH purposes can
pose a challenge of
4 Mass media improve SRH as it encourages use of SRH
services by improving some aspects of service delivery (i.e.
program image and cognitive/psycho-social accessibility)
4.1 three components of service delivery
4.1.1 quality of care
4.1.2 program image
22.214.171.124 cognitive barriers
126.96.36.199.1 The extent to which potential
clients are aware of the locations
or service/supply points and of
the services available at these
188.8.131.52 psycho-social barriers
184.108.40.206.1 psycho-social factors
preventing potential clients
from using services; affecting
use and demand of services
220.127.116.11.1.1 e.g.: fears of
with service use,
such as pelvic
exam, fear of
alone to seek
18.104.22.168.1.2 e.g., societal
for children and
5 What are the strengths and weaknesses of different media for messages about SRH? How can
media be used effectively to improve SRH?
6 For a population sub-group of your choice, explain how mass media can
be used to increase the use of reproductive health services
7 To what extent can mass media be used to improve SRH?
7.1 although it potentially improves SRH outcomes by increasing knowledge/awareness, encouraging public
discussion, changing attitudes and norms, and ultimately promoting service use it is hard to measure the
mass media's effects ...
7.1.1 e.g., very difficult to ascertain direct cause and effect: just as it is very difficult to prove that a
community’s increased knowledge of SRH is the direct effect of a mass media campaign, it is
difficult to assert any direct behavioural or health improvements as a result of the knowledge
and discussion increase.
8 def. : Any of the means of
communication that reach very
large numbers of people
8.1 different kinds of media
22.214.171.124 can increase knowledge and
promote behavioral change among
first novella using the Sabido Method to promote family planning, was
Acompaname (“Accompany Me”). Acompaname showed the personal benefits of
planning one’s family, by focusing on the issue of family harmony. The results
of Acompaname, as reported by the Mexican government’s national population
council (CONAPO), were:
calls to the CONAPO requesting family planning information increased from zero
to an average of 500 a month. Many people calling mentioned that they were
encouraged to do so by the television soap opera.
More than 2,000 women registered as voluntary workers in the national program
of family planning. This was an idea suggested in the television soap opera.
Contraceptive sales increased 23 percent in one year, compared to a seven
percent increase the preceding year.
More than 560,000 women enrolled in family planning clinics, an increase of 33
percent (compared to a one percent decrease the previous year).
126.96.36.199 can expose more rural
populations to a more urban
values and lifestyle (# of children,
use of contraceptives)
and Koffman, (2011). “The
Association of Television and Radio with Reproductive Behavior”, Population
and development review, Vol.37(4),p.749-759.
a study done by Westoff and Koffman wherein they used National Surveys
conducted between 2000 & 2008 from 48 developing countries they found that Women who
watch TV only
sometimes are 1.6 times more likely to use
modern contraception than women who dont watch tv
Women who watch TV daily are 2.4
times more likely to use modern contraception than women who dont watch tv
52% of Women who watch TV daily
report no births in the past 5 years compared with 30% for Women who don’t
188.8.131.52.1 e.g., Acompaname (“Accompany Me”) in
Mexico showing the personal benefits of
planning one’s family, by focusing on the issue
of family harmony.
184.108.40.206 Rural population,
particularly in SSA
8.1.4 social media
220.127.116.11 can share/ask for
anonimity, can be used in
18.104.22.168.1 but the
to be monitored
for quality and
and privacy need
9.1 e.g., HIV: unprotected sex -> AIDS/deaths -> condom use/limit # of partners/abstances -> HIV testing, address stigma
9.2 increases knowledge on SRH; encourage use of services (FP, HIV, STI);
address stigma; change attitudes (sexual
practice norm/value, family size value)
9.3 FP campaign: intention to use
female condom in Tanzania (Agha &
Agha S, Van Rossem R: Impact of mass media campaigns on intentions to use the female condom in Tanzania.
Int Fam Plan Perspect 2002, 28(3):151-8.
Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3088258 . Accessed August 10, 2014
9.4 HIV awareness campaign in Nigeria.
exposure to the campaign increased the
likelihood for individuals to discuss
HIV/AIDS issues with a partner and to
know that condom use reduces the risk
of HIV transmission (Keating et al. 2006)
a mass media campaign intended to maximize the use of family planning, HIV/AIDS, and child survival services in Nigeria found that individuals exposed to the campaign were more likely to discuss HIV/AIDS issues with a partner and to know that condom use reduces the risk of HIV transmission than persons not exposed
9.5 maternal health campaign:
increased use of antenatal,
postnatal and delivery care
For instance, a study in Indonesia uncovered that husbands exposed to the mass media campaigns (television, radio, print materials), which were designed to promote male involvement in birth preparation were more likely to report new knowledge on birth preparedness and to participate in birth preparation than those not exposed
9.5.1 increased knowledge
about care and improved
participation of men in
antenatal care, childbirth
and postnatal care:
Indonesia (2010); Malawi