Carbohydrates

shannon.bates
Mind Map by shannon.bates, updated more than 1 year ago
shannon.bates
Created by shannon.bates over 6 years ago
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carbohydrates

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Carbohydrates
  1. monosaccharides
    1. these are simple sugars, with the general formula (CH20)n, where n can be 3–7
    2. disaccharides
      1. these are ‘double sugars’, formed from two monosaccharides
        1. Formation
          1. A glycosidic bond forms between a hydroxyl group (OH) on one monosaccharide molecule and a hydroxyl group on another monosaccahride
          2. Maltose
            1. glucose linked to glucose
            2. Sucrose
              1. glucose linked to fructose
              2. Lactose
                1. glucose linked to galactose
              3. polysaccharides
                1. these are large molecules formed from many monosaccharides
                  1. Polysaccharides are mainly used as an energy store and as structural components of cells
                    1. The major polysaccharides are starch and cellulose in plants, and glycogen in animals.
                      1. starch
                        1. many alpha glucose molecules arranged into two different structural units
                          1. amylose
                            1. 1-4 glycosidic bonds
                              1. unbranched chains
                                1. helical structure
                                2. amylopectin
                                  1. 1-4 and 1-6 glycosidic bonds
                                    1. highly branched chains
                                  2. usually stored as intracellular starch grains
                                  3. cellulose
                                    1. long chains of beta glucose molecules joined by beta 1–4 glycosidic bonds
                                      1. hydrogen bonds between cellulose chains
                                      2. glycogen
                                        1. Glycogen is stored as small granules, particularly in muscles and liver
                                          1. Glycogen is less dense and more soluble than starch, and is broken down more rapidly
                                        2. Glucose
                                          1. an abundant and very important monosaccharide. It contains six carbon atoms. Its general formula is C6H12O6
                                          2. Reducing sugars
                                            1. All monosaccharides and some disaccharides are reducing sugars
                                              1. Test
                                                1. BENEDICT’S SOLUTION
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