power

Joe Ni
Mind Map by Joe Ni, updated more than 1 year ago
Joe Ni
Created by Joe Ni over 6 years ago
84
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Description

Mind Map on power, created by Joe Ni on 05/13/2015.

Resource summary

power
  1. Castells
    1. hypothsis

      Annotations:

      • My working hypothesis is that the most fundamental form of power lies in the ability to shape the human mind. The way we feel and think determines the way we act. both individually and collectively.
      1. understanding

        Annotations:

        •    This is the subject matter of this book. Why or how. and by whom power relationships are constructed and exercised though the management communication processes. and how these power relationships can be altered by social actors aiming for social change by influencing the public mind.   
        1. coercion

          Annotations:

          • Yes. coercion. and the capacity to exercise it. legitimate or not, is an essential source of power. But coercion alone cannot stabilize domination.
          1. constent

            Annotations:

            •    The ability to build consent. or at least to instill fear and resignation vis-a-vis the existing order. is essential to enforce the rules that govern the institutions and organizations of society.     
            1. social norm

              Annotations:

              •    And these rules. in all societies, manifest power relationships embedded in the institutions as a result of processes of struggle and compromise between conflicting social actors who mobilize for their interests under the banner of their values.    Furthermore, the process of institutionalizing norms and rules and the challenge to these norms and rules by actors who do not feel adequately represented in the workings of the system go on simultaneously. in a relentless movement of reproduction of society and production of social change.   
              1. everyday life

                Annotations:

                •  If the fundamental battle about the definition of the norms of society, and the application of these norms in everyday life. revolves around the shaping of the human mind communication is central to this battle. Because it is through communication that the human mind interacts with its social and natural environment
                1. structuration

                  Annotations:

                  • This process of communication operates according to the structure. Culture organization, and technology of communication in a given society. The communication process decisively mediates the way in which power relationships are constructed and challenged in every domain of Social practice. including political practice.
              2. power and counter power

                Annotations:

                • intervention:the results of this analysis to what communication research knows about the conditioning of political communication by social and political actors deliberately intervening in the media and other communication networks to foster their interest . through mechanisms such as agenda-setting. framing. and priming of the news and other messages. The purpose, ambitious enough, is to propose a new approach to understanding  power in the network society. I will focus my effort on studying the current processes of asserting political power and counter power
                1. network society

                  Annotations:

                  •     the social structure that characterizes society in the early twenty-first century. a social structure constructed around (but not determined by digital networks of communication. I contend that the process of formation and exercise of power relationships is decisively transformed in the new organizational and technological context derived from the rise of global digital networks of communication as the fundamental symbol-processing system of our time.   
                  1. three components

                    Annotations:

                    •    Network Society Thus. the first three chapters of this book are inextricably linked because an understanding of the construction of power relationships through communication :in the network society requires the integration of the three key components of the process explored separately in each one of the chapters: * The structural determinants of social and political power in the global   network society. * The structural determinants of the process of mass communication under the organizational, cultural and technological conditions of our time. * The cognitive processing of the signals presented by the communication system to the human mind as it relates to politically relevant social practice.   
                    1. horizontal network

                      Annotations:

                      •    horizontal networks of communication built around the Internet and wireless communication. Indeed these horizontal networks make possible the rise of what I call mass self-communication. decisively increasing the autonomy of communicating subjects vis-a-vis communication corporations. as the users become both senders and receivers of messages.   
                      1. cognitive interaction

                        Annotations:

                        •    In this book, I combine my own expertise on social-political analysis and the study of communication technologies with the works of scholars investigating the interaction between the brain and political power in order to build a body of observation that may provide a measure of the relevance of this interdisciplinary approach. I have explored the sources of political power relationships in our world by trying to link the structural dynamics of the network society, the transformation of the communication system, the interaction between emotions, cognition. and political behavior, and the study of politics and social movements in a variety of contexts. Therefore, the analysis of power relationships requires an understanding of the specificity of the forms and processes of socialized communication, which in the network society means both the multimodal mass media and the interactive.   
                        1. Deep understanding

                          Annotations:

                          • However, to explain how power is constructed in our minds through communication processes, we need to go beyond how and by whom messages are originated in the process of power-making and transmitted/ formatted in the electronic networks of communication. We must also understand how they are processed in the networks of the brain. it is in the specific forms of connection between networks of communication and meaning in our world and networks of communication and meaning in our brains that the mechanisms of power-making can ultimately be identified.
                        2. self-communication

                          Annotations:

                          •    Thus, the rise of mass self-communication as I call the new forms of networked communication, enhances the opportunities for social change, so our increased capacity to act on society will simply project into the open who we really are in each time/space context.   
                          1. the role of audience

                            Annotations:

                            •     both the mass media and the horizontal networks of interactive communication, focusing on both their differences and their intersections. I study the transformation of the media audience from receptors of messages to senders/receivers of messages and I explore the relationship between this transformation and the process of cultural change in our world. Finally, I identify the power relationships embedded : in the mass-communication system and in the network infrastructure on which communication depends, and I explore the connections between business, media. and politics.   
                            1. from structure to agency

                              Annotations:

                              •     Having set up the structural determinants of the relationship between power and communication in the network society. I change the perspective of my analysis from the structure to the agency. If power works by acting on the human mind by the means of communicating messages, we need to understand how the human mind processes these messages, and how this processing translates into the political realm.   
                              1. inidivudal decision-making

                                Annotations:

                                •     to unveil the processes of individual political decision-making revealing in terms of the relationship between mental processes, metaphorical thinking, and political image-making. I think that the research of the school of affective intelligence, and other works of political communication, provide a most-needed bridge between social structuration and the individual processing of power relationship.   
                                1. media politics

                                  Annotations:

                                  • network society, politics is fundamentally media politics, focusing on its epitome, the politics of scandal, and relating the results of the analysis to the worldwide crisis of political legitimacy that challenges the meaning of democracy in much of the world. Chapter 5 explores how social movements and agents of political change proceed in our society through the reprogramming of communication networks, so becoming able to convey messages that :introduce new values to the minds of people and inspire hope for political change. Both chapters will deal with the specific role of mass media and horizontal communication networks. as media politics and social movements use both sets of networks, and as media networks and Internet networks are inter-related.
                                2. universal feature

                                  Annotations:

                                  • because the network society is global, and so are the global communication  networks, while cognitive processes in the human mind universaLly share basic features, albeit with a  range of variation in the cultural forms of their manifestation. After all, power relationships are the foundational relations of society throughout history geography and cultures. And if power relationships are constructed in the human mind through communication processes.
                            2. Frankfurt School

                              Annotations:

                              • 风格、自发性和娱乐也都足虚假的、不成熟的和谐状态 ained.   
                              1. Standardization

                                Annotations:

                                •    standardization and raionalization of the culture distribution techniques expressed in the perennial conflict between artists active in the culture industry and those who control it - individual forms of production are nevertheless maintained.   
                                1. Great art
                                  1. self-negation

                                    Annotations:

                                    •    self-negation: instead of exposing itself to this failure in which the style of the great work of art has always achieved self-negation,the inferior work has always relied on its similarity with others -on in a surrogate identity. 与其暴露失败,伟大的作品都是实现自我否定,瑕疵的作品总是依赖相似性与其他 代理人的身份   
                                    1. negative truth

                                      Annotations:

                                      •    1negative truth: the great artists were never those who embodied a wholly flawless and perfect style,but those who used style as a way of hardening themselves against the chaotic expression of suffering,as a negative truth. 伟大的艺术家并不是拥有完美无瑕的作品,强化自己风格 对抗吵杂环境,作为消极的诊真理   
                                      1. double victory
                                      2. mass culutre

                                        Annotations:

                                        •    critique to mass culture: this subsumption mockingly satisfies the concept of a unified culture which the philosophers of personality contrasted with mass culture.归类活动以嘲讽的方式满足了同一文化的概念,这个概念恰恰是人格哲学家用来对抗大众文化的武器。   
                                        1. 1standardization

                                          Annotations:

                                          •     it has made the technology of the culture industry no more than the achievement of standardization and mass production, sacrificing whatever involved a distinction between the logic of the work and that of the social system.文化产业的技术不多于标准化的成就或批量生产牺牲无论涉及的关于社会系统与工作逻辑的区别   
                                          1. 2monopoly

                                            Annotations:

                                            • Under monopoly all mass culture is identical, and the lines of its artificial framework begin to show through. 在垄断之下所有文化都是相同的,艺术的框架开始呈现
                                            1. 3Label

                                              Annotations:

                                              •    Label. For culture now impresses the same stamp on everything. films, radio and magazines make to a system which is uniform as a whole and in every part. marked differnentiations such as those of a and b films, or of stories in magazines in differnent price ranges, depend not so much on subject matter as on classifying, organing, and labeling consumers. 所标注的差异性 区别a和b电影的不是话题或题材而是分类、组织、给观众贴标签文化产业给所有事物贴上统一标签 所有事物成为统一规范的整体   
                                              1. 4jusfitication

                                                Annotations:

                                                • The truth that they are just business is made into an ideology in order to justify the rubbish they deliberately produce. 精心评价垃圾产品,创造的工业获取巨大收益
                                                1. 5sameness

                                                  Annotations:

                                                  •     in view of the ideological truce, the conformism of the buyers and the effrontery of the producers who supply them prevail. the result is a constant reproduction of the same thing. 顺从的大众与厚颜无耻的生产 持续再生产相同的事物   
                                                2. Control
                                                  1. Democracy

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    •    by craiftily sanctioing the demand for rubbish it inaugurates total harmony. th connoisseur and the expert are despised for their pretentious claim to know better than the others, even though culture is demorcratic and distribues its privileges to all.  狡猾地裁定 对垃圾产品的需求 开创整体和谐 鉴定家与专家被轻视 因为他们自命不凡的言论 即使文化是民主的,传播给大众的   
                                                    1. sameness

                                                      Annotations:

                                                      •    even though culture is democratic and distributes its privileges to all. In view of the ideological truce, the conformism of the buyers and the effrontery of the producers who supply them prevail. The result is a constant reproduction of the same thing.   
                                                      1. exclusion

                                                        Annotations:

                                                        • What is new about the phase of mass culture compared with the late liberal stage is the exclusion of the new. The machine rotates on the same spot.
                                                      2. superstructure

                                                        Annotations:

                                                        •    Not to conform means to be rendered powerless, economically and therefore spiritually to be "self- employed. When the outsider is excluded from the concern, he can only too easily be accused of incompetence.   Whereas today in material production the mechanism of supply and demand is disintegrating, in the superstructure it still operates as a check in the rulers' favor. The consumers are the workers and employees, the farmers and lower middle class.   Capitalist production so confines them, body and soul, that they fall helpless victims to what is offered them. As naturally as the ruled always took the morality imposed upon them more seriously than did the rulers themselves, the deceived masses are today captivated by the myth of success even more than the successful are.   
                                                        1. social order

                                                          Annotations:

                                                          •    The concepts of order which it hammers into human beings are always those of the status quo. They remain unquestioned, unanalyzed and undialectically presupposed, even if they no longer have any substance for those who accept them. It proclaims: you shall conform, without instruction as to what; conform to that which exists anyway, and to that which everyone thinks anyway as a reflex of its power and omnipresence.   
                                                          1. suppress

                                                            Annotations:

                                                            • the need which might resist central control has already been suppressed by the control of the individual consciousness对抗中央的能力已经被对个体的镇压所控制住了
                                                            1. deception

                                                              Annotations:

                                                              • the claim that this is done to satisfy the spontaneous wishes of the public is no more than hot air 声称可以对满足公众自发愿望就仅仅是夸夸其谈
                                                              1. prohibit

                                                                Annotations:

                                                                • all executive authorities not to produce or sanction anything that in any way differs from their rules, their own ideas about consumers, or above all themselves所有的执行者都禁止任何事物不同与他们的规则与想法关于消费者
                                                                1. morality

                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                  •    capitalist production so confines them,body and soul, that they fall helpless victims to what is offered them. As naturally as the ruled always took the morality imposed upon them more seriously than did the rulers themselves, the deceived masses are today captivated by the myth of success even more than the successful are. 资本家生产拘束人的身体、灵魂,让那些无助的牺牲者自然用道德强加于自己的身上甚至比name统治者还要严重,被欺骗的大众被囚禁在成功的秘密里甚至多余成功本身   
                                                                2. Technological rationale
                                                                  1. rationality

                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                    •    it is  in fact forced upon the latter by the power of society, which remains irrational, however we may try to rationalize it; and this inescapable force is processed by commercial agencies so that they give an artificial impression of being in command.   
                                                                    1. technique

                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                      •    The concept of technique in the culture industry is only in name identical with technique in works of art.technique is concerned with the internal organization of the object itself, with its inner logic.   
                                                                      1. 1definition

                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                        •    1.a technological rationale is the raionale of domination itself. is is the coercive nature of soicety alienated from itself.技术理性就是理性的统治。这是强制脱离从社会中异化脱离的“技术理性就是逻辑理性或者一种注重功利而不顾道德的理性”   
                                                                        1. 2predominance of the effect

                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                          • the development of the culture industry has led to the predominance of the effect, the obvious touch, and the technical detail over the work itself-which once expressed an idea ,but was liquidated toghter with the idea.文化产业产生卓越效果,明显的触感与技术的细节已经超越内容本身
                                                                          1. 3naturalization

                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                            • such is the ideal of what is natural in this field of activity, and its influence becomes all the more powertful, the more thchnique is perfected and diminishes the tension between the finished product and erveydaylife. 理想化的自然 更具有影响力 技术完美可以消除完场作品与日常生产之中的紧张感
                                                                            1. 4instiutional power

                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                              •    the power of economic institution: No mention is made of the fact that the basis on which technology acquires power over society is the power of those whose economic hold over society is greatest.   
                                                                              1. 5hierarchical structure

                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                • Classification: The public is catered for with a hierarchical range of mass-produced products of varying quality,thus advancing the rule of complete quantification. Everybody must behave (as if spontaneously) in accordance with his previously determined and indexed level, and choose the category of mass product turned out for his type.
                                                                                1. technological resources

                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                  • technical resources: The idea of “fully exploiting” available technical resources and the facilities for aesthetic mass consumption is part of the economic system which refuses to exploit resources to abolish hunger.
                                                                                2. The example of radio

                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                  •    The latter is democratic: it turns all participants into listeners and authoritatively subjects them to broadcast programs which are all exactly the same. No machinery of rejoinder has been devised, and private broadcasters are denied any freedom. They are confined to the apocryphal field of the "amateur," and also have to accept organization from above.   
                                                                                  1. Mechanization
                                                                                    1. mental reproduction

                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                      • the culture industry as a whole has molded men as a type unfailingly reproduced in every product.all the agents of this process, take good care that the simple reproduction of this mental state is not nuanced or extended in any way.????文化工作把人作为无穷尽的再生产,所有环节好好照顾简单再生产的精神状态
                                                                                      1. stereotyped appropriation

                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                        • the stereotyped appropriation of everything, even the inchoate, for the purposes of mechanical reproduction surpasses the rigor and general currency of any real style---celebrate the organic pre-capitalist past.挪用各类事物,在早期  机械再生产超过严格和普通的任何真正风格 怀念前资本时代 在那个建筑更加艺术而非准备化机械化的年代
                                                                                      2. cultural as industry
                                                                                        1. culture as entertainment business
                                                                                          1. social process

                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                            • Nevertheless the culture industry remains the entertainment business. Its influence over the consumers is established by entertainment;  Since all the trends of the culture industry are profoundly embedded in the public by the whole social process, they are encouraged by the survival of the market in this area.  
                                                                                            1. conventional power

                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                              •    the entertainment industry determines its own language, down to its very syntax and vocabulary, by the use of anathema. The constant pressure to produce new effects (which must confomm to the old pattem) serves merely as another rule to increase the power of the conventions when any single effect threatens to slip through the net. Every detail is so fimlly stamped with sameness that nothing can appear which is not marked at birth, or does not meet with approval at first sight.   
                                                                                            2. power and culture industry

                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                              •  Business is their ideology. It is quite correct that the power of the culture industry resides in its identification with a manufactured need, and not in simple contrast to it.mechanisation has such power over a man’s leisure and happiness, and so profoundly determines the manufacture of amusement goods; what sinks in is the automatic succession of standardised operations.  
                                                                                              1. deception

                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                • The culture industry perpetually cheats its consumers of what it perpetually promises.  The culture industry tends to make itself the embodiment of authoritative pronouncements, and thus the irrefutable prophet of the prevailing order. It skilfully steers a winding course between the cliffs of demonstrable misinformation and manifest truth, faithfully reproducing the phenomenon whose opaqueness blocks any insight and installs the ubiquitous and intact phenomenon as ideal. 文化工业把自己造就成蛊惑权威的化身,造就成不容辩驳的既存秩序的先知。意识形态不仅驾轻就熟地绕过了各种明摆着的假象和真相之间的对立,而且注定会制造出各种扑朔迷离的现象,用来遮人耳目,或者把无所不在且毫无关联的现象奉为圭臬。
                                                                                                1. ideology

                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                  • The new ideology has as its objects the world as such. It makes use of the worship of facts by no more than elevating a disagreeable existence into the world of facts in representing it meticulously. This transference makes existence itself a substitute for meaning and right.  
                                                                                                2. tragic substance and amusement

                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                  • The culture industry, however, reflects positive and negative welfare for those under the administrators' control as direct human solidarity of men in a world of the efficient.
                                                                                                  1. meaning

                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                    • This provides the tragic substance which pure amusement cannot itself supply, but which it needs if it is somehow to remain faithful to the principle of the exact reproduction of phenomena. Tragedy made into a carefully calculated and accepted aspect of the world is a blessing. It is a safeguard against the reproach that truth is not respected, whereas it is really being adopted with cynical upset.
                                                                                                    1. consequence

                                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                                      • To the consumer who culturally has seen better days it offers a substitute for long-discarded profundities. It provides the regular movie-goer with the scraps of culture he must have for prestige.  the culture industry assigns tragedy a fixed place in the routine.  
                                                                                                    2. what is culture

                                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                                      •    Culture as a common denominator already contains in embryo that schematization and process of cataloging and classification which bring culture within the sphere of administration. And it is precisely the industrialized, the consequent, subsumption which entirely accords with this notion of culture.   
                                                                                                      1. industry as system

                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                        • the system itself reproduces the life of those of whom it consists instead of immediately doing away with them, is even put down to its credit as giving it meaning and worth. Continuing and continuing to join in are given as justification for the blind persistence of the system and even for its immutability.
                                                                                                      2. attitudes
                                                                                                        1. morality

                                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                                          • The tragic film becomes an institution for moral improvement. The masses,demoralized by their life under the pressure of the system, and who show signs of civilization only in modes of behavior which have been forced on them and through which fury and recalcitrance show everywhere, are to be kept in order by the sight of an inexorable life and exemplary behavior.  
                                                                                                          1. instinct

                                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                                            • Culture has always played its part in taming revolutionary and barbaric instincts. It shows the condition under which this cruel life can be lived at all. The individual who is thoroughly weary must use his weariness as energy for his surrender to the collective power which wears him out. 
                                                                                                          2. individuality
                                                                                                            1. Audience

                                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                                              • No independent thinking must be expected from the audience: the product prescribes every reaction: not by its natural structure (which collapses under reflection), but by signals. Any logical connection calling for mental effort is painstakingly avoided. 
                                                                                                              1. peculiarity

                                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                                • The peculiarity of the self is a monopoly commodity determined by society; it is falsely represented as natural.the lives and faces of every single person are transformed by the power of the generality. Pseudo individuality is the prerequisite for comprehending tragedy and removing its poison: only because individuals have ceased to be themselves and are now merely centers where the general tendencies meet, is it possible to receive them again, whole and entire, into the generality.The principle of individuality was always full of contradiction. Individuation has never really been achieved.
                                                                                                                1. illusion

                                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                                  •    In the culture industry the individual is an illusion not merely because of the standardization of the means of production.He is tolerated only so long as his complete identification with the generality is unquestioned.What is individual is no more than the generality's power to stamp the accidental detail so firmly that it is accepted as such.   
                                                                                                                  1. power

                                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                                    • The individual who supported society bore its disfiguring mark; seemingly free, he was actually the product of its economic and social apparatus. Power based itself on the prevailing conditions of power when it sought the approval of persons affected by it.
                                                                                                                  2. commodity
                                                                                                                    1. style
                                                                                                                      1. universal imposition

                                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                                        •    The universal imposition of this stylized mode can even go beyond what is quasi-offlcially sanctioned or forbidden.   A style might be called artificial which is imposed from without on the refractory impulses of a form. But in the culture industry every element of the subject matter has its origin in the same apparatus as that jargon whose stamp it bears.   
                                                                                                                        1. reconciliation

                                                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                                                          •    Hence the style of the culture industry, which no longer has to test itself against any refractory material, is also the negation of style. The reconciliation of the general and particular, of the rule and the specific demands of the subject matter, the achievement of which alone gives essential, meaningful content to style, is futile because there has ceased to be the slightest tension between opposite poles: these concordant extremes are dismally identical; the general can replace the particular, and vice versa.   
                                                                                                                          1. schematize

                                                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                                                            •    who was thought to relate the varied experiences of the senses to fundamental concepts; but industry robs the individual of his function. Its prime service to the customer is to do his schematizing for him.   
                                                                                                                            1. invariabel and change

                                                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                                                              • Not only are the hit songs, stars, and soap operas cyclically recurrent and rigidly invariable types, but the specific content of the entertainment itself is derived from them and only appears to change.
                                                                                                                            2. Format

                                                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                                                              • The totality of the culture industry has put an end to this. Though concerned exclusively with effects, it crushes their insubordination and makes them subserve the formula, which replaces the work.消除了拒不抗争的特点,遵循特点的模式,而非作品本身
                                                                                                                              1. enviroment

                                                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                                                • while determining consumption it excludes the untried as a risk the movie-makers distrust any manuscrit which is not reassuringly backed by a  bestseller.电影生产者不再相信不是畅销作者的剧本 在消费决定的大环境下
                                                                                                                                1. nature

                                                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                                                  • Naturalization: This is the "nature" which, complicated by the ever-present and extravagant demands of the specific medium, constitutes the new style and is a "system of non-culture, to which one might even concede a certain 'unity of style' if it really made any sense to speak of stylized barbarity.
                                                                                                                                2. 1.fetish

                                                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                                                  •    What might be called use value in the reception of cultural commodities is replaced by exchange value; The consumer becomes the ideology of the pleasure industry, whose institutions he cannot escape.No object has an inherent value; it is valuable only to the extent that it can be exchanged. The use value of art, its mode of being, is treated as a fetish; and the fetish, the work's social rating (misinterpreted as its artistic status) becomes its use value the only quality which is enjoyed. The commodity function of art disappears only to be wholly realized when art becomes a species of commodity instead, marketable and inter-changeable like an industrial product.   
                                                                                                                                  1. 2.transposition

                                                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                                                    •    the culture industry can pride itself on having energetically executed the previously clumsy transposition of art into the sphere of consumption,on making this a principle,on divesting amusement of its obtrusive naivete(摒弃粗鲁又天真) and improving the type of commodities.文化产业可以富有充沛精力地处理艺术使其传到消费的领域,使其成为一种原则,摒弃粗鲁天真的风格,提升产品的类型   
                                                                                                                                  2. structure

                                                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                                                    •    The culture industry fuses the old and familiar into a new quality.products which are tailored for consumption by masses, and which to a great extent determine the nature of that consumption, are manufactured more or less according to plan.and which to a great extent determine the nature of that consumption, are manufactured more or less according to plan.   
                                                                                                                                    1. totality
                                                                                                                                      1. identical

                                                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                                                        •    identical. the false identity of the general and the particular. Under monopoly all mass culture is identical, and the lines of its artificial framework begin to show through. The people at the top are no longer so interested in concealing monopoly: as its violence becomes more open, so its power grows. Movies and radio need no longer pretend to be art.   
                                                                                                                                        1. repetition

                                                                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                                                                          • It consists of repetition. That its characteristic innovations are never anything more than improvements of mass reproduction is not external to the system.  It is with good reason that the interest of innumerable consumers is directed to the technique, and not to the contents – which are stubbornly repeated, outworn, and by now half-discredited. The social power which the spectators worship shows itself more effectively in the omnipresence of the stereotype imposed by technical skill than in the stale ideologies for which the ephemeral contents stand in.
                                                                                                                                        2. Advertising

                                                                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                                                                          • :In a competitive society, advertising performed the social service of informing the buyer about the market; it made choice easier and helped the unknown but more efficient supplier to dispose of his goods. Far from costing time, it saved it. Today, when the free market is coming to an end, those who control the system are entrenching themselves in it. It strengthens the firm bond between the consumers and the big combines. Only those who can pay the exorbitant rates charged by the advertising agencies, chief of which are the radio networks themselves; that is, only those who are already in a position to do so, or are co-opted by the decision of the banks and industrial capital, can enter the pseudo-market as sellers. The costs of advertising, which finally flow back into the pockets of the combines, make it unnecessary to defeat unwelcome outsiders by laborious competition.They guarantee that power will remain in the same hands
                                                                                                                                          1. market and culture
                                                                                                                                            1. liberal system

                                                                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                                                                              •    the system of the culture industry comes from the more liberal industial nations, and all its charactetstic media,such as media,radio,jazz, and magazines, flourish there. its progress,to be sure, had its origin in the general laws of capital.   
                                                                                                                                              1. rigid style

                                                                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                • the culture industry,the most rigid of all styles, proves to be the goal of liberalism, which is reproached for its lack of style.最呆板的风格,证明所谓的自由主义,其实是风格的缺失
                                                                                                                                            2. mediation
                                                                                                                                              1. 1world as extension

                                                                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                •    1.the whole world is mapass through the filter of the culture industry.the world outside as an extension of the film   整个世界都要通过文化工业的过滤。正因为电影总是想去制造常规观念的世界   
                                                                                                                                                1. 2illusion as reality

                                                                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                  •    audience deviate from its precise detail without losing the thread of the story; hence the film forces its victims to equate it directly with reality.  电影生产者复制经验客体的技术越严谨无误,人们就容上易产生错觉,以为外部世界就是银屏所呈现的世界,是直接和延续的。   
                                                                                                                                                  1. 3limited imagination

                                                                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                    •    3The sound film, far surpassing the theater of illusion, leaves no room for imagination or reflection on the part of the audience, who is unable to respond within the structure of the film, yet deviate from its precise detail without losing the thread of the story; hence the film forces its victims to equate it directly with reality.   
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