Language and Power


Mind-map of Influential and Instrumental Power for A-Level English Language
Eleanor H
Mind Map by Eleanor H, updated more than 1 year ago
Eleanor H
Created by Eleanor H over 6 years ago

Resource summary

Language and Power
  1. Influential Power
    1. influences and persuades e.g. advertising


      1. Fairclough's Model of Analysis
        1. STAGE 1: Build Relationships
          1. Synthetic Personalisation
            1. imperatives
              1. direct address/use of 2nd person pronouns
            2. STAGE 2: Create an Image Using Reader's Cognitive Models and Ideology
              1. evoke image of 'ideal' user
                1. verbal/written cues to support 'perfect' image
                2. STAGE 3: Build the Consumer
                  1. represent image close to target audience's values and lifestyle
                    1. give impression that the product is designed for their (ideal) life or image
                  2. Key Terms/Features
                    1. Paralanguage (connotations of what the writing looks like)
                      1. e.g. handwriting is more personal and individualistic
                      2. Comparative Referencing (indirect comparisons using incomplete comparatives; reader fills in the gap)
                        1. e.g. "Persil washes whiter"
                        2. Cognitive Appeal (teases reader)
                          1. e.g. questions, unconventional spellings, palindromes, spoonerisms, puns, codes, phoneme substitution
                          2. Problem-Solution Format (uses a question/problem which is answered/solved by the product)
                            1. works on an emotional level and plays on reader's insecurities
                        3. Instrumental Power
                          1. 'forces' things to actually happen e.g. law, business
                            1. Law
                              1. 'Legalese'
                                1. lots of Latinate and Archaic Forms
                                  1. very excluding
                                  2. frequent use of Parenthetic Clauses and Subordinate Clauses
                                    1. cover loopholes
                                  3. Business
                                    1. often has very specific lexis
                                      1. excluding
                                      2. overuse of Buzzwords
                                        1. now highly cliched and less respected
                                        2. often uses Euphemisms as a form of Negative Politeness
                                          1. e.g. "downsizing" = making people redundant
                                        3. Education


                                          1. 3-Part Exchanges
                                            1. Terms of Address
                                              1. Subject-Specific Lexis
                                                1. Educational Jargon
                                                  1. (Mitigated) Imperatives
                                                    1. Non-Verbal Communications
                                                      1. can add enthusiasm
                                                      2. Discourse Markers
                                                        1. 2-Part Exchanges
                                                          1. Prosodic Features
                                                            1. Divergence
                                                            2. Key Features
                                                              1. Formality
                                                                1. Jargon
                                                                  1. Modals
                                                                    1. to express certainty
                                                                    2. Imperatives
                                                                      1. Conditionals
                                                                        1. Complex Lexis/Grammar
                                                                          1. Definitions
                                                                            1. Hidden Assumptions
                                                                              1. have to agree with for text to make sense
                                                                              2. Passive Forms
                                                                                1. evades responsibility, creates distance and prevents argument
                                                                                  1. e.g. "Bicycles chained to this post will be removed."
                                                                                  2. Conversational Dominance and Control of Contributions
                                                                                    1. e.g. interruptions, lengthy utterances, topic management
                                                                                      1. Evaluation and (Non)Acknowledgement of others' contributions
                                                                                      2. Prestigious Accent & Dialect
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