OCR: AS Biology: F211

Sophie Evans
Mind Map by Sophie Evans, updated more than 1 year ago
Sophie Evans
Created by Sophie Evans over 6 years ago
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Mind Map on OCR: AS Biology: F211, created by Sophie Evans on 14/05/2015.

Resource summary

OCR: AS Biology: F211
  1. Microscopy
    1. Resolution
      1. Definition
        1. How well it can distinguish between two points close together
        2. Light Microscope
          1. 200nm
          2. TEM
            1. 0.1nm
            2. SEM
              1. 0.1nm
            3. Magnification
                1. Light Microscope
                  1. x1500
                  2. TEM
                    1. x500,000
                    2. SEM
                      1. x100,000
                      2. Definition
                        1. How much bigger the image is than the specimen
                      3. Staining
                        1. Used with light microscope
                          1. Chemicals bind to specimen, allowing it to be seen
                            1. Some bind to specific structures
                              1. Makes recognition easier
                                1. Acetic orcein staining DNA red
                                2. EM create black and white images
                                  1. Dipped in heavy metals (e.g. lead)
                                    1. Creates a contrast
                              2. Cell Structure
                                1. Membranes
                                  1. Fluid Mosaic Model
                                    1. Phospholipid Bilayer
                                      1. Hydrophilic tail
                                        1. Hydrophobic head
                                          1. Small, non-polar substances diffuse through
                                          2. Cholesterol
                                            1. Lipid
                                              1. Membrane stability
                                                1. Binds to tails so it's less fluid
                                                2. Proteins
                                                  1. Control what leaves/enters cell
                                                    1. Channel Proteins
                                                      1. Smaller ions and polar molecules
                                                        1. Used in diffusion
                                                          1. Sometimes facilitated
                                                        2. Carrier Proteins
                                                          1. Facilitated diffusion
                                                            1. Large molecules and ions
                                                              1. Down concentration gradient
                                                              2. Active Transport
                                                                1. Against concentration gradient
                                                                  1. Uses ATP
                                                              3. Glycolipids/ Glycoproteins
                                                                1. Cell Signalling
                                                                  1. Hormones bind to complimentary receptor
                                                                    1. Communication between cells
                                                                    2. Antigens
                                                                  2. Cell Surface
                                                                    1. Plasma membranes
                                                                      1. Partially permeable
                                                                        1. Allow substances to move in and out
                                                                      2. Within cells
                                                                        1. Separate organelles
                                                                          1. Folded- increase surface area
                                                                            1. Vesicles to transport substances around
                                                                          2. Organelles
                                                                            1. Nucleus
                                                                            2. Prokaryotic VS Eukaryotic
                                                                            3. Breathing
                                                                              1. Transport: Animals
                                                                                1. Transport: Plants
                                                                                  1. Cell Division
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