Class differences - Internal factors

Jasmine Clark
Mind Map by Jasmine Clark, updated more than 1 year ago
Jasmine Clark
Created by Jasmine Clark over 6 years ago


A-Level Sociology - Unit 2 Mind Map on Class differences - Internal factors, created by Jasmine Clark on 05/14/2015.

Resource summary

Class differences - Internal factors
  1. Labelling
    1. Attaching a meaning or definition to a pupil, e.g. hardworking or troublemaker.
      1. Becker (1971) - Conducted interviews with 60 teachers within secondary education and found that students were labelled based on how close they were to the 'ideal pupil'.
        1. Keddie (1971) - Found that teachers subconsciously withheld 'higher status' and more abstract knowledge from the lower streams within the comprehensive system.
        2. Self-fulfilling prophecy
          1. A prediction that comes true simply by virtue of it being made.
            1. Interactionists argue that labelling can affect a child's achievement through a self-fulfilling prophecy.
              1. Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) - Gave children within primary school a standard IQ test, but told their teachers' that it would highlight students destined for success. 20% of the students were picked at random (high and low scorers) and after a year later 47% of the 20% had shown significant progress.
                1. Proves the self-fulfilling prophesy, if a teacher believes a student will be successful, they can make that happen by showing encouragement, patience and giving higher graded work.
              2. Marketisation
                1. Gillborn and Youdell (2004) - Publication of league tables creates the A-to-C economy - a system in which schools ration their time, effort and resources, concentrating them on those pupils they perceive as having the potential to get five grade C's at GCSE and so boost the school's league table position. patiance
                  1. Meant the students were sorted through the educational triage.
                    1. Those who will pass anyway
                      1. Borderline C grade who will be targeted with help
                        1. Hopeless cases
                      2. The increase in marketisation has created an increase in competition and selection.
                        1. Popular schools can screen out less able students meaning that unpopular schools have to take them - creating a larger gap between schools.
                          1. Will Barlett (1995) - Because of marketisation, popular schools:
                            1. Cream skimming - Select higher ability pupils who cost less to teach
                              1. Silt-shifting - off load pupils with learning difficulties who are expensive to teach and get poor grades
                          2. Pupil sub-cultures
                            1. A group of pupils who share similar values and behaviour patterns, often an effect of labelling, particularly streaming.
                              1. Pro-school subcultures share that same values as school and gain higher status through academic success.
                                1. Anti-school subcultures are formed between those with a loss of self-esteem because the school has undermined their self-worth by placing them in a position of inferior status. The LADS.
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