external factors

Sanjidah Ahmed7909
Mind Map by Sanjidah Ahmed7909, updated more than 1 year ago
Sanjidah Ahmed7909
Created by Sanjidah Ahmed7909 over 6 years ago
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external overview for external

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external factors
  1. cultural deprivation-
    1. norms, values, beliefs, skills and knowledge are needed to achieve in education through primary socialisation.
      1. 1. intellectual, 2. language 3. attitude and values
        1. 1. Intellectual - ability to develop thinking, reasoning and problem-solving
          1. w/c lack books, educational toys, activities = slow development
            1. Douglas = w/c scored less because of less parent influence - not reading to them at night times therefore no development
              1. evidence - Young and bernstein - m/c buy more influenced items to help develop their intellectual development
                1. critics - ignores material deprevation - poverty, ignores labelling, w/c are different culture and it is a myth.
              2. 2. language = bernstein
                1. restricted
                  1. w/c - limited vocab, predicted,
                    1. critics - B= w/c inadequate - school needs to teach them how to use elabortated speech
                  2. elaborated
                    1. = m/c - range of vocab, text book = suited for everyone
                  3. 3. Attitide and Values = Sugarman
                    1. fatalism -
                      1. 'whatever happens happens will be' m/c will try to stop fate and change by putting effort
                      2. Collectivism
                        1. valuing being in a group than individual, m/c wants to succeed individually
                          1. critics - passed on my previous generation ie not their fault
                        2. immediate gratification
                          1. enjoying present instead of making sacrifices - M/C - deferred gratification - making sacrifices now for reward later
                          2. present-time orientation -
                            1. seeing present as more important therefore no long term goal or plans- m/c planning for future therfore do good in education
                    2. material deprivation
                      1. poor housing
                        1. over crowding = hard to concentrate, nowhere to do homework, distubed sleep to tired to work
                          1. no save enironment for children to play outside and develop problem solving.
                            1. move around therefore disrupting education, illness from damp house and days off school
                        2. Diet and health
                          1. Howard - low energy, vitamins and minerals. poor health affects by weakening the immune system and lowering the childrens energy = absence from school.
                            1. Also emotional and behavioural problems - Wilkinson - ten years the lower the social class = high hyperactivity, anxiety and disorders - effect on children education
                          2. finance
                            1. no equipment and miss out experience that will help develop educational achievement
                              1. Tanner - books, trips, computers, calculator etc = heavy burden on poor families
                          3. cultural Capital
                            1. Bourdieu: Three types of capital
                              1. explains why M/C achieve in education than W/C
                                1. 1. Cultural Capital 2. Educational Capital 3. Economic Capital
                                  1. Cultural Capital
                                    1. refers to knowledge, attitude, values, language, tastes and abilities of M/C
                                      1. Better socialisation = ability to grasp, analyse and express abstract ideas.
                                        1. therefore understand the educational system
                                          1. this gives the M/C an advantage as they have the ability and interest are valued and rewarded with qualification
                                            1. On the other hand, W/C devalue their culture as rough and inferior
                                              1. lead to exam failure and get the message that education isn't for them and respond by truanting, leaving early or not trying,
                                    2. Education and economic capital
                                      1. B - argues that educational, economic and cultural are covered all together
                                        1. M/C are better equipped to gain qualifications
                                          1. wealthier parents can afford to send children to private school and extra tuition
                                            1. Campos and Leech say that M/C parents can afford to move houses near a good school = increase costs for houses near good schools.
                                      2. Gewirtz: Marketisation and parental choice
                                        1. found differences between and cultural lead to class difference in how parents choose a secondary school
                                          1. found 3 main types of parents
                                            1. privileged-skilled chooser
                                              1. M/C parents = confident, well educated and prosperous
                                                1. know how the education system work - waiting list, putting particular choice first etc
                                                  1. research difference schools so they can choose best one for their children
                                                    1. economic capital = can afford to move around the education system or pay travel fees
                                                  2. disconnected-local chooser
                                                    1. w/c - restricted by lack of economic and cultural capital
                                                      1. found it hard yo understand school admissions prosecures.
                                                        1. less confident in dealing with schools, less aware of options open,
                                                          1. only care if the school is safe and good for the childrens health
                                                            1. couldn't travel far as there was no money. was forced to go to a local school.
                                                          2. semi-skilled choosers
                                                            1. w/c but ambitious for their children but don't cultural capital
                                                              1. depend on other opinions and get frustrated if they don't get in
                                                                1. Gewirtz says M/C take advantage of opportunities for good education. marketisation gives everyone a greater choice
                                                                  1. Whitty - marketisation has not led to more opportunities for W/C. instead allowed M/C to use their knowledge more
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