Relationships: Formation, Maintenance, Breakdown and Culture

joshtan107
Mind Map by , created over 4 years ago

Mind map of A2 relationships ( formation maintenance breakdown culture)

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joshtan107
Created by joshtan107 over 4 years ago
Psychology | Unit 3 | Relationships - Sexual Selection
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Relationships: Formation, Maintenance, Breakdown and Culture
1 Formation and Maintenance
1.1 Reward/need for satisfaction theory: We form relationships to receive rewards from others.
1.1.1 Relationships are positively reinforced because it is rewarding.
1.1.2 Rewards: Sex, status, approval, love, money, respect. They Satisfy our social needs (self-esteem, dependency).
1.1.3 Byrne Et al (1970) Suggested that both operant and classical conditioning play a part in relationships. We learn to associate people with positive situations.
1.2 Equity Theory: People expect relationships to be fair and equal
1.2.1 People want to receive rewards from relationships that are in balance with the ones they give back. If a relationship is un equal it produces distress in both partners (including the one giving less). The disadvantaged party may then try to make things fairer.
1.2.2 Hatfield Et al (1979): asked newly weds to assess their contribution to the relationship and their contentment with their marriage. Found that the least satisfied were those Under benefited second least satisfied were people over benefited. This shows equal relationships were the most satisfactory
2 Breakdown
2.1 Duck (1988): Four stage model of the ending of a relationship
2.1.1 Intra-psychic phase: One partner becomes dissatisfied with the relationship
2.1.2 Dyadic phase: The other partner is told about the dissatisfaction
2.1.3 Social phase: The break up is made public to friends and family (relationship can still be saved here, with interventions or martial support
2.1.4 Grave dressing phase: finishing the relationship completely. Ex partners organize their lives post-relationship. They tell their own version of the break-up and of their current relationship with their ex.
2.1.5 Theory doesn't take into account individual differences and research suggests these models don't show how complex relationship breakdown can be
2.1.6 Theories don't consider cultural differences in relationships
2.1.7 Rusbult Et al (1983) Argued some people in relationships actively lead the process (to resolve the problems or speed up the ending) others are passive (believing things will resolve themselves)
3 Culture
3.1 I-individualistic T-temporary V- Volunteer C-collectivist O-obligatory-P-permanent
3.2 Duration
3.2.1 Relationships are more likely to be permanent in non Western-cultures. In Western societies, we are more likely to split up and have new relationships
3.3 Marriage
3.3.1 Arranged marriages are associated with collectivist cultures and involve whole families. (seem to be more stable than ones based on love)
3.3.2 Levine Et al (1995) found a higher percentage of people from collectivist societies would marry a person with the right qualities whom they didn't love, compared to individualistic societies.
3.4 Divorce
3.4.1 Goodwin (1999) calculated US divorce rate to be 40-50%
3.4.2 However Chinese regard divorce as shameful to the families involved and the effected couple- fewer marriages end in divorce. Beginning to change due to westernisation

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