Public sphere by Habermas

Joe Ni
Mind Map by Joe Ni, updated more than 1 year ago
Joe Ni
Created by Joe Ni over 6 years ago
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Mind Map on Public sphere by Habermas, created by Joe Ni on 05/21/2015.

Resource summary

Public sphere by Habermas

Annotations:

  •    一种介于市民社会中日常生活的私人利益与国家权利领域之间的机构空间和时间,其中个体公民聚集在一起,共同讨论他们所关注的公共事务,形成某种接近于公众舆论的一致意见,并组织对抗武断的、压迫性的国家与公共权力形式,从而维护总体利益和公共福祉。   
  1. social condition
    1. the third source

      Annotations:

      •    the liberal architectonic of government and society undergoes an important change: in addition to the hierarchical regulations of the state and the decentralized regulations of the market, that is, besides administrative power and individual personal interests, solidarity and the orientation to the common good appear as a third source of social integration.   
      1. neturalization

        Annotations:

        • the constitutional state predicated on civil rights pretended,on the basis of an effective public sphere, to be an organization of public power ensuring the latter's subordination to the needs of a private sphere itself taken to be neutralized as regards power and domination.宪政国家假装赋予公民权基于一个有效的公共空间,一个机构的公共权力确保后者的从属关系满足私人空间作为权利与统治的中立。
      2. ideal speech situation

        Annotations:

        •    • Communicative process between equal participants • Access to the deliberation process should be open • Presupposes citizens to be rational and knowledgeable • Requires citizens to be active and interested participants • Deliberative process should be centred on the common good and not on self-interest • Citizens should be willing to modify or change their views as a result of debate and discussion • The strength of the argument is more important than the status of those who put it forward   
        1. market

          Annotations:

          • the social precondition for this developed bourgeois public sphere was a market that ,tending to be liberalized, madde affairs in the sphere of social reproduction as much as possible a matter of private people left to themselves and so finally completed the privatization of civil society公共领域的前提在于市场的自由化 实现公民社会的私有化
          1. natural order

            Annotations:

            • it ws crucial that the laws of the market were seen as a natural order. Hence, civil society could be undersood as neutral regarding power and domnation,市场法则作为自然规律,公民社会可以被看坐关于权力与统治的中立。
        2. social transfomation

          Annotations:

          •    自由民主制度如代议制等都令人失望,原因就在于“经济利益占主导的意识形态导致了私人领域的膨胀,最终取代吞噬了公共领域”。    Yet the transformation of the public sphere... largely on its continual expansion to include more and more participants(as well as on the development of large scale social organizations as mediators of individual participation.   
          1. refedualization

            Annotations:

            •    : structural transformation came about, however, as private organizations began increasingly to assume public power on the one hand, while the state penetrated the private realm on the other. state and society, once distinct, became interlocked. rational-critical debate gave way to the consumption of culture.   
            1. media

              Annotations:

              • 大众报刊逐渐取代了具有批判意识的文学家庭杂志,它们往往不惜以牺牲其政治与公共事务内容为代价,它迎合教育水平较低的消费集体的娱乐和消闲需要,即时报偿新闻(如腐败、、体育、)不断排挤延期报偿新闻(如公共事务、社会问题),“阅读公众的批判逐渐让位于消费者‘交换彼此品味与爱好”’,因而“文化批判公众”变成了“文化消费公众”,即被操纵的公众,这样,文学公共领域消失了,取而代之的是文化消费的伪公共领域或伪私人领域。seminar q 6       对哈氏而言,公关俨然成了资本主义政治力量的化身,因为公关所建构的公众注意力和好感,其效果远远越过商品销售本身,因为它还建构出公共权威,成为社会上具有影响力的半政治力量.  
              1. return of representative publicity

                Annotations:

                •    : the public sphere has become more than an areana for advertising than a setting for rational-critical debate.the media are used to create occasions for consumers to identify with the public positins or personas of others.   
                1. new version of representative publicity

                  Annotations:

                  •  a 'democratic' broadening of the constituency of the public, but at the cost of its internally democratic functioning. the long march through the institutions. that is ,parties, parastatal agencies, and bureaucracies of all sorts must themselves be internally democratized and subjected to critical publicity. 
                2. democratization

                  Annotations:

                  •    : some mechanism for insuring more democratic access and slection is needed as a response to the concentration of ownership and increasing scale of media organizations. there may be no alternative to a politics based on negotiation of interests among organized groups.   
                  1. consequence

                    Annotations:

                    • the intra-organizational publicity and democracy is important, in the absence of a unifying general interest, it can only improve representation in compromise, not achieve the identification of the political with the moral through the agency of rational-critical debate.
                3. consumption

                  Annotations:

                  • the consumption of mass culture increases with wealth, status, and urbanization. the result is that the public sphere as a whole is transformed, not just diluted around the edges.
                  1. groupness

                    Annotations:

                    • Kant the bourgois forms of sociability have found substitutes that have one tendency in common despite their regional and national diversity: abstinence节制 from literary and political debate. individuals gave way to more or less noncommittal group activities. it was a joint consumption rather than a more active participation in mutual critique
                    1. transformation

                      Annotations:

                      •    the consumption oridentation of mass culture produces a proliferation of products designed to please various tastes. This break involves not only segmentation of audiences but transformation of the once intimate relationship between cultural producers and consumers.   
                      1. consequence

                        Annotations:

                        • a joint consumption rather than a more active participation in mutual critique, rational-critical debate had a tendency to be replaced by consumption理性批判已经被大众文化的消费所替代
                      2. leisure time

                        Annotations:

                        • to the extent private people withdrew from their socially controlled roles as property owners into the purely 'personal' ones of their noncommittal use of leisure time, they came directly under the influence of semi-public authorities, without the protection of an institutionally respected domestic domain私人所以资产者尊重的内部空间已经被消解为毫无实际的娱乐时间,在半权力机构的影响下,无法保护原先的空间。
                        1. involvement

                          Annotations:

                          •    serious involvement with culture produces facility, while the consumption of mass culture leaves no lasting tracelit affords a kind of experience which is not cumulative but regressive.这种严重的文化生产参与,虽然这种大众文化不留下持续的痕迹,而支付一种倒退而非累计的经验。   
                          1. intimacy

                            Annotations:

                            •    the sphere generated by the mass media has taken on the traits of a secondary realm of intimacy. We experience radio, film, and television communication with an immediacy far greater than that characteristic of the printed word.媒体生产二级亲近领域,电视、电视的亲近远好于文字   
                            1. false consciousness

                              Annotations:

                              • The awakened readiness of the consumers involves the false consciousness that as critically reflecting private people they contribute responsibly to public opinion".消费者的觉醒准备涉及虚假 意识的批判性反映私人的人,他们负责促进公众舆论
                          2. transformation of PS

                            Annotations:

                            •    the public sphere becomes a setting for states and corporate actors to develop legitimacy not by responding appropriately to an independent and critical pubic but by seeking to instill in social actors motivations that conform to the needs of the overall system dominated by those states and corporate actors.   
                            1. inclusiveness

                              Annotations:

                              • brough degeneration in the quality of discourse, but he contend that both the requirement of democracy and the nature of contemporary large-scale social organiation mean that it is impossible to progess today by going back to an elitist public sphere.
                              1. critique: gender massification

                                Annotations:

                                • several scholars Benhabib, Fraser, Eley and Ryan stressed the issue of participation, focusing on the exclusionary character of the early public sphere and the issue of gender. the gendered character of the early public sphere is linked to the theme of transformation by massification 大众化转型than is exclusion on class grounds. literate women would not have transformed the bourgeois public sphere into a mass. 
                                1. critique:publicness

                                  Annotations:

                                  •     schudson focues on the extent of participation. elite or mass? he raises question wheether earlier constitutions of the public sphere really produced more ration-critical debate than those of recent years.   
                                2. blurring

                                  Annotations:

                                  •    the blurring of relations between private and public involved centrally the loss of the notion that private life created autonomous, relatively equal persons who in public discourse might address the general or public interest.   First the inequalities: awlways present in civil society the inclusion of more people in the public sphere made it impossible to escape addressing the class division of civil society.贫富差距   
                                  1. inequality

                                    Annotations:

                                    •    awlways present in civil society the inclusion of more people in the public sphere made it impossible to escape addressing the class division of civil society.贫富差距   
                                    1. depoliticalization

                                      Annotations:

                                      • the increasein working-class leisure time. in any case, what he is charting is simultanesously the depoliticization of the public sphere and its impoverishment by removal of critical discourse. the press that submitted political issues to critical discussion in the long run lost its influence.
                                    2. institutions and civil society

                                      Annotations:

                                      •     individuals came directly under the influence of semi-public authorities, without the protection of an institutionally respected domestic domain. the public sphere was turned into a sham semblance of its former self.(虚假表象)   
                                      1. conformity

                                        Annotations:

                                        •    as the public was enlarged, however, public opinion itself came to seem a threat, particularly when it seemed to involve a compulsion toward conformity more than critical discourse. this was actually a matter, in part, of protecting the possibility of free, critical thought from public opinion itself.   
                                        1. engineer consent

                                          Annotations:

                                          •     the new public-relations industry finds it easy to engineer consent among the consumers of mass culture. the mass-consumption mentality substitutes a pursuit of acclamation for the development of rationa-critical consensus.   
                                        2. the kernel of bourgeois PS

                                          Annotations:

                                          •    the kernel of bourgeois public sphere is a strguggle to make publicity a source of reasoned, progressive consensus formation rather than an occasion for the manipulation of popular opinion.   
                                          1. normative

                                            Annotations:

                                            •    continues to see the development of welfare state capitalism as producing impasses (rather than crises born of a dialectic, which will resolve them) but destroying earlier bases for addressing them through utopian collective action.   
                                            1. objective general interest

                                              Annotations:

                                              •     the obective general interest was replaced with one of a fairly negotiated compromise among insterests. the functioning of the public sphere thus shifted from rational-critical debate to negotiation.   
                                            2. penetration

                                              Annotations:

                                              • structural transformation came about,however,as private organizations began increasely to assume public power on the one hand,while the state penetrated the private realm on the other. State and society,once distict,became interlocked.结构转型意味着私人机构开始承担公共权力,国家渗透到私人领域。国家与社会,开始互锁。
                                              1. legitimacy

                                                Annotations:

                                                • the public sphere becomes a setting for states and corporate actors to develop legitimacy not by responding appropriately to an independent and critical public but by seeking to instill in social actors motivations that conform to the needs of the overall system dominated by those states and corporate actors.公共领域成为国家与企业强调合法性并非对独立又批判性的公众做出回应,逐渐滴入行动者的动机使其确保由国家和企业主来统治整个社会系统
                                          2. critique transformation

                                            Annotations:

                                            • habermas's account of the twentieth century does not include the sort of intellectual history, the attempt to take leading thinkers seriously and recover the truth from their ideologically distorted writings,that is characteristic of his approach to 17.18.19 century. the result is perhaps an overestimation of the degereneration of the public sphere. 
                                            1. argument

                                              Annotations:

                                              •    the result is an overestimation of the degeneration of the public sphere.作者评价哈氏把公共空间式微的问题严重化   
                                              1. the role of media

                                                Annotations:

                                                •    the public consequences of mass media are not necessarily as uniformly negative as structural transformation suggests, and there may be more room than habermas realized for alternative democratic media strategies.   
                                                1. identity politics

                                                  Annotations:

                                                  •    the lack of nationalism, feminism, gay ,ethnic or youth consciouness involve crucial redefitions of the issues and identities involved in political struggles. one of the key changes in the public sphere since its classical heyday has been increasing prominence of what may be called identity politics.   
                                                  1. dichotomy

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    •     it points up that the public/private dichotomy itself imposes a neutralizing logic on differntial identity by establishing qualification for publicness as a matter of abstraction from private identity.   
                                                    1. gender

                                                      Annotations:

                                                      • habermas failed to pay enough attention to the gendered nature of the public sphere, hesees the solution to this problem only is gender neutrality rather than in thematizing. 
                                                      1. religion

                                                        Annotations:

                                                        •    the religion must decline as enlightenment progresses. the secularization is part and parcel of modernity and,closely linked to the rise of rational critical discouese,goes unquestioned. this view contributes to habermas's blind spot on the role of religion both as a central thematic topic in the early public sphere.   
                                                        1. science

                                                          Annotations:

                                                          • providing a model of disinterested discourse, discourse by a general interest in knowledge that in ideology held the particular interests of participants. This was like a highly restricted version and rendered their private indentities irrelevant. the idea of science to social science was a key moment in the creation of the liberal public sphere. the odeplogy of science was one source of views that saw rightness in public polucy as distinctly ascertainable frm public discourse and potentially superordinate over it.
                                                          1. social movement

                                                            Annotations:

                                                            •    social movement: the public discourse and democratic politics, however, seem crucially influenced by social movements. such movements may be conceptualized as subsidiary  publics.movements are crucial to reorienting the agenda of public discourse. social movement are occasions for the restructuring not just of isses but of identities.the absence of social movements also reflects an inattention to agency.   
                                                            1. univeralisation

                                                              Annotations:

                                                              • habermas has removed the immanence from specific historical conditions to universal characteristics of human communication. this allows him to ground his normative argument, to keep it from arbitrariness, but it removes it from any clear purchase on historical progress. reflects an inattention to agency.   
                                                              1. state and culture

                                                                Annotations:

                                                                • 39b he tend to typify epochs with little regard to national or other cultural specificity很少提起国家主义与文化特定等概念
                                                                1. neturalization

                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                  •    it is hard on habermas's account to see the need for it to be positively thematized中立地看待问题,很少把这些议题主体化主题化。   
                                                                  1. history context

                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                    • Habermas has removed the immanene from specific historiacla conditions to universal characteristics of human communcaiton . this allows him to ground his normative argument to keep it from arbitrariness, but it removes it from any clear purchase on historical progress.哈氏自己理论从具体的历史条件转移到普遍意义特点的人类传播,奠定规范论证的基础,保持其随意性却从历史进程中抹除
                                                                2. private realm

                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                  • the private realm did not offer true respite from public tensions, for the family and the intimate sphere in general were marked by the necessity of labor, patriarchal property ownership, and domination.私人领域不提供真正的缓解从公众张力中,家庭和亲密空间总体被标记为劳动力、平民阶级所有和统治的需要 an intimate sphere set free from economic functions私人空间可以从经济功能里解放粗来
                                                                  1. subjectivity

                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                    • the public's understanding of the public use of reason was guided by such private experience as grew out of the audince-oriented subjectivity of the conjugal family's intimate domain. 
                                                                    1. family

                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                      • the family was believed to be independent of the market. the ambivalence of the family as an agent of society yet simultaneously as the anticipated emancipation from society manifested itself in the situation of the family member: on the one hand, they were held together by partiarchal authority; on the other, they were bound to one anther by human closeness.
                                                                      1. importance

                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                        •  the family provided a crucial basis for the immanent critique of the bourgeois public sphere itself, for it taguht that there was something essential to humanness that economic or other status could not take away. 
                                                                      2. the connection between public sphere

                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                        •    自由民主制度如代议制等都令人失望,原因就在于“经济利益占主导的意识形态导致了私人领域的膨胀,最终取代吞噬了公共领域”。   
                                                                        1. public sphere

                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                          •    a sphere which mediates between society and state, in which the public organizes itself as the bearer of public opinion, […] that principle of public information which once had to be fought for against the arcane policies of monarchies and which since that time has made possible the democratic control of state activities.   
                                                                          1. public authority

                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                            • but it derives its task of caring for the well-being of all citizens primarily from this aspect of the public sphere. only when the exercise of political control is effectively subordinated to the democratic demand that information be accessible to the public, does the political public sphere win an institutionalized influence over the government through the instrument of law-making bodies. 
                                                                            1. public opinion

                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                              •    refers to the tasks of criticism and control which a public body of citizens formally as well practices the ruling structure organized in the from of a state.   
                                                                              1. truth

                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                •     as a reasoned form of access to truth, this replaces the notions of public opinion as the 'mere opinion'(or arbitrary views)of isolated individuals taken in the aggregate, the reputation that emerges in the mirror of dispersed opinions,and the opinion of the 'common' sort of people.Marx disagreeed not with the general idea but only with the claim that bourgeois civil society constiuted the natural order that could give rise to harmonious human relationships.   
                                                                                1. general will

                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                  •    as a sort of public opinion, a consensus of hearts rather than arguments. since truth was the object of critical reflection and the general will alike, these could be intrepreted as a sense apolitical. the task was to rationalize politics in the name of morality as well as truth ,not simply to engate in it.   
                                                                                  1. critique

                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                    •    Marx's denunciation of public opinion as a mask for bourgeois class interest. the public shere with which marx saw himself confronted contradicted its own principle of universal accessibility- he public could no longer claim to be identical with the nation,civil society with all of society.   
                                                                                    1. formation

                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                      • Informal public opinion-formation generates "influence"; influence is transformed into "communicative power" through the channels of political elections; and communicative power is again transformed into "administrative power" through legislation.’Habermas
                                                                                    2. liberal model

                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                      • citizens transmit the needs of bourgeois society to the state to transform political into 'rational' authority within the medium of this public sphere. the general interest, which was the measure of such a rationality, according to presuppositions of a society of free commodity guaranteed, according to the presuppositions of a society of free commodity exchange, when the activities of private individuals in the marketplace were freed from social compulsion and from political pressure in the public sphere.
                                                                                      1. rationalization(decentration)

                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                        •    means more than mere legitimation but less than the constitution of political power. The power available to the administration changes its aggregate condition as soon as it emerges from a public use of reason and a communicative ower which do not just monitor the exercise of political power in a belated manner but more or less program it as well.   
                                                                                        1. practical reason

                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                          •    This something is an institutional location for Kant's practical reason(人们运用理性决定在特定情势下如何行动才算正当) in public affair and for the accompanying valid claims of formal democracy.  in this public sphere, practical reason was institutionalized through norms of reasoned discourse in which arguments, not statuses or traditions,were to be decisive.   
                                                                                          1. procedural rationality

                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                            •    : its ability to give credence to our views in the three areas of objective knowledge, moral-practical insight, and aesthetic judgment. This procedural rationality is fundamentally a matter of basing judgment on reasons.   
                                                                                            1. equality

                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                              •    Kant betrayed a certain eltism. Since participation in argument is a means of education capable of overcoming the debilities that make some arguers inferior(and thus is a very differnent matter from ascribed statuses that permanently exclude some people).   
                                                                                          2. bourgeois public sphere

                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                            •     The early bourgeois public spheres were composed of narrow segments of european population,mainy educated,and they conducted a discourse not only exclusive of others but prejudical to the insterests of those excluded.   
                                                                                            1. defintion

                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                              • the public sphere bourgeois is society that was bourgeois and bourgeois society produced a certain form of public sphere. the new sociability together within the rational-critical discourse that grew in the salons(and coffee houses and other places, depended on the rise of national and territorial power states on the basis on the early capitalist commercial economy.   
                                                                                            2. public discourse

                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                              • the importance of the public sphere lies in its potential as a mode of scoietal integration. public discourse (or communicative action) is a possible mode of coordination of human life, as are state power and market economies. power and marktet economies offer no intrinsic openings to the identification of reason. state and economy are both curical topics and rivals of the democratic public sphere
                                                                                              1. social integration

                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                • the ideal of the public sphere calls for social integration to be based on rational-critical discourse. integration, is to be based on communication rather than domination. communication means not merely sharing what people already think or know but also a process of potential transformation in which reason is advanced by debate itself. 
                                                                                              2. civil society

                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                •    the notion of civil society is basic to habermas' account of the public sphere, developed as the genuine domain of private autonomy stood opposed the state'. it included institutions of sociality and discourse only loose related to the economy. civil society came into existence as the corollary of a depersonalized state authority.   it became possible to recognize society in the relationships and organizations created for sustaining life and to bring these into public relevance by bringing them forward as interests for a public discussion and the action of the state.   
                                                                                                1. as ideology

                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                  • Hegel offered the first critique, denouncing the public of civil society as ideology. Public opinion had the form of common sense ; it was dispersed among people in the form of prejudices, not true knowledge黑格尔认为所以的公民社会就是意识形态。公众舆论形成常识。散布偏见,而非真理
                                                                                                2. interwined

                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                  •    one is that the family was reconstituted as an intimate sphere that grounded both the evaluative affirmation of ordinary life and economic activity alluded to above and the participation of its patriarchal head in the public sphere. two is that the public sphere was initially constituted in the world of letters, which paved the way for that oriented to politics. The two processes were intertwined.   
                                                                                                  1. public debate

                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                    • public debate was supposed to transform voluntas(意图) into a ratio that in public competition of private arguments came into being as the consensus about what was practically necessary in the interest of all.
                                                                                                    1. public

                                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                                      •    public in this narrower sense was synonymous with 'state-realted' but the public sphere was not coerminous with the state apparatus, for it included all those who might join in a discussion of the issues raised by the administration of the state. the participation in this discussion included agents of the state and private citizens.       
                                                                                                      1. general insterest

                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                        • a general interest sufficiently basic that discourse about it need not be distorted by particular interests(at least in principle) and could be a matter of rational approach to an objective order,of truth. 
                                                                                                      2. normative mandate

                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                        • public opinion is brought into play as a critical authority in connection with the normative mandate that the exercise of political and social power be subject to publicity or as the object to be molded in connection with a staged display and manipulative propagation of publicity in the service of persons and institutions, consumer goods and programs.
                                                                                                        1. rational-critical debate

                                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                                          •    a rational-critical debate about public issues conducted by private persons willing to let arguments and not statuses determine decisions. 允许私人参与到理性批判对于公共事务的辩论排除政府的决策与干预   
                                                                                                          1. rational arguement

                                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                                            •  rational argument was the sole arbiter of any issue 强调理性辩论是仲裁任何问题的基础。 the best rational argument and not the identity of the speaker was supposed to carry the day was institutionalized as an available claim.最佳的理性争辩是以制度化作为一个可行的主张
                                                                                                            1. mechanism

                                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                                              •    discussion within such a public presuppose the problematization of areas that until then had not been questioned讨论公共预设问题的领域直到没有质疑为止  a virtual monopoly of interpretation were opened to discussion, in as much as the public defined its discourse as focusing on all matters of common concern.实质的垄断解释对外公开说明的,因为公共定义的话语应该关于所有共同的关切   
                                                                                                          2. morality

                                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                                            • engagement in the public sphere was the means by which the conflicting private wills of rational people could be brought into harmony. this could happen because society, particularly the private economy, necessarily gave rise to the conditions for turning politics into morality. 
                                                                                                            1. Democratization

                                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                                              • the political public sphere, in their account, did not rest on any natural basis, though some form of the bourgeois public sphere did need to be defended through common sense, prudence and realism. the democratization of the public sphere was an inevitable result of the tension between its original class limitations and its principled openness. for example, the electoral reform ..enlargement of the public..
                                                                                                              1. institution perspecitve

                                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                                •  the today realizable only as a rationalization of the exercise of societal and political power under the mutual control of rival organizations themselves committed to publicity as regards both their internal structure and their interaction with one another and with the state. 
                                                                                                              2. system and lifeworld

                                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                                • hebaermas argues that advanced capitalist society cannot be conceptualized as a social totality, because it split into separate realms integrated on different bases. life world is counter posed a system ordered on the basis of nonlinguistic steering media(money and power),integrating society through functional or cybernetic feedback. the lifeworld is the locus for basic human values and is undergoing rationalization processes of its own; it needs to be defended against the continual encroachment of systemic media,
                                                                                                                1. communicaton action

                                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                                  •     provide an alternative to money and power as a basis for basis for societal integration. on the one hand, habermas idealizes the directly interpersonal realtions of the lifeworld as counterpoint to systemic integration with its de-humaiation and reification. on the other hand, he explores the capacity of specific institutionalized discourses like law to develop communicative action as a means of soceital reationlization and integration.   
                                                                                                                2. consensus

                                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                                  • non-coercively unifying, consensus building force of a discourse in which participants overcome their at first subjectively biased views in favor of a rationally motivated agreement.’
                                                                                                                  1. general insterest

                                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                                    •  a general interest sufficiently basic that discourse about it need not be distorted by particular interests(at least in principle) and could be a matter of rational approach to an objective order,of truth.
                                                                                                                  2. deliberative democratic model

                                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                                    •    • Focus on decentralised governance (participatory democracy) • Normative conception (presupposes ideal speech situation) • Sphere of social life where citizens debate rationally relating to the common good • Public opinion is formed through rational and critical debate, though communicative action (deliberation) • Building a consensus should be the ultimate aim   
                                                                                                                    1. literacy PS

                                                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                                                      • 3the literacy public sphere helped to develop the distinctively modern idea of culture as an autonomous realm. In as much as culture became a commodity and thus finally evolved into culture in the specific sense文学公共领域创造不同意义的现代文化概念作为自治领域。在此情况下文化成为商品最终演化成某种意义的文化
                                                                                                                      1. appropriation

                                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                                        •    this sort, the lay judgment of the private peopie within an interest in literature had been institutionalized" (p. 167). It thus institutionalized a form of rational-critical discourse about objects of common concern that could be carried over directly into political discussion: the process in which the state-governed public sphere was appropriated by the public of private people making use of their reason and was established as a sphere of criticism of public authority. 梳理文学批判的公共权威 私人对于文学的兴致已经机构化了 建立在机构化的理性话语上 投射到公众关切 的政治讨论 国家主导的政治空间已经私人的公共领域所挪用  
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