Medicine Through Time (Surgery and Anatomy) 2

Toni Mcintyre
Mind Map by Toni Mcintyre, updated more than 1 year ago
Toni Mcintyre
Created by Toni Mcintyre over 6 years ago
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Mind Map on Medicine Through Time (Surgery and Anatomy) 2, created by Toni Mcintyre on 05/24/2015.

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Medicine Through Time (Surgery and Anatomy) 2
  1. Medieval
    1. Armies took trained doctors to war this is where there surgery improved
      1. Arab doctors investigated galen and challenged his theories, Al-Nafis said that the blood moves from heart to lungs and around body not through invisable holes. no body nuilt up on his work and the dicovery wasnt made till 1600
        1. Human dissection was aloud and schools sprang up.
          1. Great demand for surgery in warfare
            1. Wine was first used as antiseptic, surgical treatments were still simple as major surgery was risky. Many surgeries were left low regard and some wern't even taught
            2. Renaissance
              1. Andreas Vesalius studied the anatomy and became a professor of surgery and anatomy. He was allowed to do dissections he wrote many books with illustrations of his work. he pointed out many of Galen's mistakes. He said no holes in heart and the jaw bone is not made of 2 bones. encouraged doctors to dissect
                1. Ambroise Pare developed ligatures to seal wounds, he was a battlefield surgeon , in battle he ran ou of boiling oil so he used an old roman method. He wrote notes and became the King's surgeon.
                  1. William Harvey discovered the circulation of the blood, disproved Galen's theory and identifies difference between arteries and veins. He becomes the kings doctor this makes his ideas heard. To spread his ideas he wrote a book. however bleeding still continues after harvey as people don't know what to do.
                    1. Many artists drew parts of the body for doctors and new books were produced
                    2. 1750-1900
                      1. New understandings of the body and proving that some things Galen said were imcomple and wrong.
                        1. 3 main problems that faced surgeons were pain as patients could die with shock, infection didn't know about microbes causing infection and Bleeding because patients could die with losing to much blood in surgery.
                          1. Pain was overcome by first Nitrous Oxide (laughing gas) This was discovered by Sir Humphry Davy this wasn't used much as wasnt in a good book, Ether used by J.R Lister during a leg amputation but has harmful side affects. Chloroform usd by James simpson but had unexplained deaths. Final breakthrough for anaesthetics was when queen victoria had chloroform used to give birth to her fourth child.
                            1. Opposition to anaesthetics were uncomfortble for patients, doctors belied pain was good for healing, people didn't know how they worked and the side effects were unknown.
                              1. Germ theory Louis Pasteur
                                1. Infection was overcome Joseph Lister and discovery of antiseptics, carbolic spary was used on sewage, infection spelt like sewage, he read germ theory, he was prepared to take risks. Opposition to this was it slowed down surgery, uncomfortable for doctors as it affected skin, germ theory wasnt widely accepted and surgeons didn't follow instructions so bad results. The final development was in 1980s when it lead to antiseptic surgery this is the removal of all possible germs in theatres. Everything was cleaned, instruments were cleaned and surgeons wore gloves.
                                  1. When Harvey discovered the circulation of blood, many blood transfusions were attempted but ended badly because blood groups were not known, They couldnt stop blood clotting and infections could be passed on. So bleeding was not overcome until the discovery of blood groups 1901 by Karl Landsteiner.
                                  2. 20th Century
                                    1. The first world war improved surgery as surgeons has more opportunity to experiment with plastic surgery.
                                      1. The development of x-rays 20 years before the war were not confirmed until there importance in the war as by using the machine surgeons could identify where bullets and shrapnel were without this fatal infections could of occurred.
                                        1. Blood transfusions were used a lot in the war as many soldiers needed blood and by knowing the blood groups many lives were saved.
                                          1. Second world war improved surgery and more blood transfusions.
                                            1. Plastic surgery was used in the war for burns, shell damage and bullet wounds. Archibald McIndoe did many surgeries during world war 2 and even helped patients mentally deal with there new appearance.
                                              1. Transplant surgery was first attempted in 1967 by Christiaan Barnard but the patient died in 18 days many lessons were learnt and eventully after learning what drugs stop the body rejecting organs more complex transplants have taken place.
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