Interdependence and Adaptation

stella watkins
Mind Map by stella watkins, updated more than 1 year ago
stella watkins
Created by stella watkins over 6 years ago


Mind Map on Interdependence and Adaptation, created by stella watkins on 05/26/2015.

Resource summary

Interdependence and Adaptation
  1. Survival
    1. • To survive, organisms require a supply of materials from their surroundings and from the other living organisms there.
      1. • Organisms live, grow and reproduce in places where, and at times when, conditions are suitable.
    2. Competition
      1. Animals often compete with each other for:
        1. • Food
          1. • Mates
            1. • Territory
        2. Plants often compete with each other for:
          1. • Light
            1. • Water from the soil
              1. • Nutrients from the soil
        3. Adaptation
          1. • Organisms have features (adaptations) which enable them to survive in the conditions in which they normally live
            1. • The organisms that are best adapted to make use of their resources in a habitat are more likely to survive and increase in numbers
              1. • For example:
                1. o To be able to obtain a certain food better.
                  1. o To make it more difficult for predators to catch them.
                    1. o To survive in extreme climates, eg arctic or deserts
                      1. • Plants lose water vapour from the surface of their leaves
                        1. • It is essential that they have adaptations which minimise this.
              2. Extreme adaptations:
                1. • Extremophiles are organisms that live in extreme environments.
                  1. • Some may be tolerant to high levels of salt, high temperatures or high pressures.
                    1. • Animals and plants may be adapted to cope with specific features of their environment eg thorns, poisons and warning colours to deter predators.
                    2. Extreme Animals
                      1. • Animals may be adapted for survival in dry and arctic environments by means of:
                        1. o changes to surface area
                          1. o thickness of insulating coat
                            1. o amount of body fat
                              1. o camouflage.
                        2. • Examples:
                          1. o Camel
                            1. • The camel can go without food and water for 3 to 4 days.
                              1. • Fat stored in their humps provides long term food reserve, and a supply of metabolic water.
                                1. The fat is not distributed around the body; this reduces insulation, allowing more heat loss.
                                  1. • They are tall and thin, increasing their surface area to volume ration, increasing heat loss by radiation.
                            2. o Polar Bear
                              1. • Polar bear has thick fur and fat beneath its skin to insulate it.
                                1. • Their large, furry feet help to distribute their weight as they walk on a thin ice.
                                  1. • They are white which camouflages them against the snow. This helps them to hunt.
                                    1. • They are compact in shape, reducing their surface area to volume ratio; this reduces heat loss by radiation
                          2. Extreme Plants
                            1. • Plants may be adapted to survive in dry environments by means of:
                              1. o changes to surface area, particularly of the leaves
                                1. o water-storage tissues
                                  1. o extensive root systems.
                              2. • Desert plants
                                1. • Eg the cactus, require very little water to survive
                                  1. • Leaves are spines.
                                    1. • Spines guard against most browsing herbivorous animals.
                                      1. • Spines also reduce their surface area, reducing water loss by evaporation
                                        1. • A thick waxy coating surrounds the plant to reduce evaporation.
                                          1. • Fewer 'stomata', reducing water loss
                                            1. • Roots tend to spread sideways to catch rain water.
                                2. • Arctic plants
                                  1. • Many of the plants are small, growing close to the ground and very close together to avoid the wind and conserve heat.
                                    1. • Some possess a light, fuzzy covering to insulate the buds so they can grow.
                                      1. • Many are dark colors of blue and purple to absorb the heat from the sunlight even during the winter months.
                                        1. • Because of the cold and short growing seasons, arctic plants grow very slowly.
                                3. Microorganisms
                                  1. • Microorganisms have adaptations that enable them to survive in different environments.
                                    1. • Some microorganisms have flagella which enable them to move around quickly.
                                      1. • Bacteria undergo rapid reproduction when conditions are favourable.
                                  2. Environmental change
                                    1. • Changes in the environment affect the distribution of living organisms.
                                      1. • For example, the changing distribution of some bird species and the disappearance of pollinating insects including bees.
                                      2. Non-living (abiotic) factors:
                                        1. • Light
                                          1. • Oxygen
                                            1. • Water
                                              1. • Temperature
                                        2. Living (biotic) factors:
                                          1. • Food
                                            1. • Predation
                                              1. • Grazing
                                                1. • Disease
                                                  1. • Competition – for: food, light, water, space.
                                        3. Living organisms can be used as indicators of pollution:
                                          1. • Lichens are sensitive to changes in air quality.
                                            1. • They are very sensitive to sulphur dioxide (SO2) pollution in the air.
                                              1. • Some species only grow in non-polluted air. Some species grow in polluted air. These lichens can be used as air pollution indicators.
                                                1. • Invertebrate animals are sensitive to changes in the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water.
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