English Speech Analysis Terminology

Fionnghuala Malone
Flashcards by , created about 5 years ago

AS/ A Level English Flashcards on English Speech Analysis Terminology, created by Fionnghuala Malone on 04/21/2014.

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Fionnghuala Malone
Created by Fionnghuala Malone about 5 years ago
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Question Answer
Agenda Topic/subject of conversation
Archaisms (Archaic Language) Old fashioned words that are no longer used
Backchannelling Feedback offered by one or more listeners to main speaker
Backtracking Interruption of the sequence of an utterance to include information that should have been included earlier
Blend Bits of words chopped off and then joined to form a new word - chillax
Borrowing Taking words from other languages
Clipping Chopping off parts of a word or expression
Colloquial Speech Natural everyday speech - language spoken as opposed to actually written
Compounding Combining two existing words to form a single word - laptop
Contractions Two words joined together by omitting a letter or letters and inserting an apostrophe
Convergence Language used by the speaker moves closer to the other speaker- adapted speech
Deixis Pointing words that directly relate to the situation
Dialects Language varieties where grammar and vocabulary identify the regional and social background
Dialogue Conversation between two or more people
Direct speech Speech using the speakers original words
Indirect speech Reports what someone said- he said "..."
Discourse Spoken or written language that is longer than a sentence
Discourse marker Utterance which moves the conversation on to another topic
Divergence Language used by a person moves away from that used by another
Ellipses ... Indicates an unfinished utterance or something that has been omitted
Ellipsis Missing out a word, often a noun or pronoun
Ellision Missing letters off the start of words OR Running/slurring words/sounds together
Embedded Dialogue Reported conversation contained with an utterance
False start (Self-Correction/Repair) Correcting oneself due to either hesitation or thinking time
Figuarative language Makes use of a metaphor or simile to create a particular impression or mood
Fillers Words that have little expression/meaning. Normally used to 'fill' conversation
Genderlect Refers to variety of language which is characteristic of men or women
Head Repetition of the subject at the start of a sentence but in a different form
Hedging Padding added to bald statements, often intentionally to soften a request or statement
Hesitations Indicated by pauses, repetition, reformulated phrases
Idiolect Language system acquired by individuals as a result of their personal characteristics, belief, social upbringing
Idiom Figure of speech, usually not meant literally
Initial position conjunction Conjunctions used at the start of a sentence
Intensifiers Usually adverbs or adverbials that intensify meaning and are used to create force and emotion
Intonation Sound of someones speech- pace, pitch, tone
Jargon Words/expressions specific to particular subjects often precise and complex
Latch-Ons (Overlaps) Indicate that someone is talking over another person's utterance
Leixis Words/vocab in language
Micropause Pause of less than a second - (.)
Minimal response Brief responses such as 'yeah' 'mmm'
Mitigation Softened commands, being polite. -Would you mind...?
Modifier Adjectives or adverbs qualifying the sense of nouns or verbs respectivley
Non standard grammar (English) Wrong verbal tense, double negatives
Open Question Question with many possible responses - What is your favourite colour?
Closed Question Question with set responses - Do you like ham? Yes/No?
Overlapping When one speaker starts before the previous speaker has finished
Paralinguistic Features Oral signals - laughs, shrugs, sighs
Pauses Indicate indecision, uncertainty
Phatic Talk Made up of formulaic utterances with stock responses
Phonology Sound of speech including itonation
Pragmatics Way of explaining language use in context
Register & Tone Describe the lexis and formality at work in someones speech or writing
Self monitoring Devices used by speakers to involve their audience and to check they are listening
Interrogative A question
Declarative A statement
Imperative Command/ Request/warning
Exclamation Abrupt/empathic or excited utterance
Slang Informal spoken language which is normally group specific
Sociolects Language varieties that reflect social background
Syntax order of words in a sentence-
Taboo language Language considered forbidden - swearing
Tag Clause tagged on the end of an utterance
Tag questions familiar questions normally added to a declarative
Tail Similar to tag but doesn't include a verb
Three part exchange Utterances linked in a obvious or clear way usually rallied between two speakers
Timed pause Pause always timed in seconds (1) (0.5)
Topic loop Utterance which returns the conversation to a earlier topic
Topic shift Focus of a communication moving from one topic to another
Transcription Printed version of a conversation
Utterances Complete unit of talk, bounded by the speakers silence
Vague language Imprecise or wooly
Verbose When someone uses more words than needed