Second Language Acquisition Theories

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The theories of second language acquisition

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Second Language Acquisition Theories
1 Input Hypothesis
1.1 Stephen Krashen
1.2 Characteristics
1.2.1 -belief that people acquire language in the same way
1.2.2 -acquire language when understand message
1.2.2.1 (not how someone says something, but what they say
1.2.3 knowledge of world help understand message
1.3 Application
1.3.1 provide pictures, symbols, examples, etc. to help get messages across from speech/ text
1.3.2 provide opportunities for children to learn knowledge of outside world to understand message
2 BICS vs. CALP
2.1 Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills
2.1.1 Jim Cummins
2.1.2 Charateristics
2.1.2.1 -deals with conversational fluency
2.1.2.2 -children acquire early years of life; are fluent in own language
2.1.2.3 -represents small aspect of any language
2.1.2.4 -looking at discrete language skills
2.1.3 Application
2.1.3.1 observe children's everyday language and to see where they stand
2.1.3.2 teach discrete language skills: grammar, spelling, phonics
2.2 Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
2.2.1 Jim Cummins
2.2.2 Characteristics
2.2.2.1 interpret and produce complexity of the language
2.2.2.2 found in language of textbooks and written texts
2.2.2.3 language not used in everyday conversation
2.2.2.4 looking at 5 years to catch up to native speakers
2.2.3 Application
2.2.3.1 read different types of books with complex language
2.2.3.2 provide examples of written text for students to look at and observe not seen in everyday language
3 Universal Grammar
3.1 Noam Chomsky
3.2 Characteristics
3.2.1 -all human language rests on building blocks of expression
3.2.2 -all languages based on the fundamental interactions between:
3.2.2.1 verbs
3.2.2.2 adjectives
3.2.2.3 nouns
3.3 Application
3.3.1 provide the building blocks and fundamental relationships into lessons
3.3.2 teach students about verbs, nouns, adjectives and how to use in sentence structure in different languages when needed
4 Critical Theory Hypothesis
4.1 Characterisitcs
4.1.1 believed second language is best learned between age 2 and puberty
4.1.2 ability to learn language is negatively affected by the completion of process of lateralization
4.1.2.1 lateralization= each side of brain develops own specialized functions
4.1.2.2 -young learners use same side of brain for learning both languages
4.2 Application
4.2.1 -teacher can find and use strategies to aid learning
4.2.2 give comprehensible input to children in classroom
4.3 Eric Lenneberg
5 Threshold Hypothesis
5.1 Application
5.1.1 make sure students are strong in their native language before teaching new language
5.1.2 bring different cultures into the classroom for all students to experience and learn about
5.1.3 create opportunities for parent involvement
5.2 Jim Cummins
5.3 Characteristics
5.3.1 states there is a threshold level of ability
5.3.1.1 must be reached in one language to be successful in other language
5.3.2 states high levels of bilingualism have positive cognitive effects
5.3.3 better developed L1= better developed L2
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