Carbohydrates

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lmcg7
Created by lmcg7 over 6 years ago
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CCEA AS Biology - Molecules of Life (disaccharides and polysaccharides)

Resource summary

Carbohydrates
  1. Disaccharides
    1. Double unit sugars
      1. Formed when 2 monosaccharides react during condensation (loss of water molecule)
        1. Broken down into constituent monomers during hydrolysis breaking glycosidic bond
          1. Maltose - 2 a-glucose molecules via condesation
            1. Sucrose - a-glucose condenses with fructose
            2. Polysaccharides
              1. Complex sugars which form long chains of many monomers
                1. Formed through condensation joining of monomers to polymers - NOT sugars (not sweet / insoluble) so used for storage
                  1. STARCH - a-glucose
                    1. Amylose
                      1. a-1,4 glycosidic bonds - unbranched chain. Due to bulky side groups, a-glucose molecules lie at angles so chains coil into a helix
                      2. Amylopectin
                        1. a-1,4 and a-1,6 glycosidic bonds - branched chains. Branches form a multihelical shape
                        2. Very compact / insoluble / easily hydrolysed
                        3. GLYCOGEN - a-glucose
                          1. a-1,4 and a-1,6 glycosidic bonds - branched. More highly branched / shorter than amylopectin
                            1. Compact / insoluble / more easily hydrolysed
                            2. CELLULOSE - B-glucose
                              1. Structural polymer of B-glucose monomers - alternate B-1,4 link molecules are rotated through 180 - straight chain
                                1. High tensile strength // insoluble // hard to digest
                                  1. H-bonds form cross-linkages with adjacent chains, chains grouped in microfibrils
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