SLP Orals Concepts Review

FreeAriel
Mind Map by FreeAriel, updated more than 1 year ago
FreeAriel
Created by FreeAriel over 6 years ago
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Description

General Review of multiple concepts of cognition, language development, and language disorders (adult and pediatric)

Resource summary

SLP Orals Concepts Review
  1. ACQUIRED DISORDERS
    1. Neurogenic Communication Disorders
      1. Aphasia

        Annotations:

        • Acquired neurogenic language disorder (injury to the brain) that affects all language modalities: spoken language expression, spoken language comprehension, written expression, and reading comprehension. Often has relatively intact nonlinguistic cognitive skills, such as memory and executive function skills, although these may co-occur
        1. Nonfluent Aphasia
          1. Broca's Aphasa

            Annotations:

            • Characterized by nonfluent speech, good comprehension, and poor repetition
            1. Agrammatism

              Annotations:

              • Content words intact, most function words missing--common in Brocas
          2. Fluent Aphasia
            1. Conduction Aphasia

              Annotations:

              • characterized by fluent speech, fair comprehension, and poor repetition
              1. Circumlocution
              2. Wernicke's Aphasia
              3. Paraphasia
                1. Phonemic: sound
                  1. semantic: concept
                2. Dementia
                  1. Alzheimer's Disease

                    Annotations:

                    • Progressive neurologic disease characterized by increasing dementia
                    1. Vascular Dementia
                      1. Lacunar state

                        Annotations:

                        • A progressive neurologic disease cause by successive small infarcts in the midbrain and brain stem
                      2. Right Hemisphere Disorders
                        1. Anosognosia

                          Annotations:

                          • Denial of illness
                        2. Motor Speech Disorders
                          1. Dysarthria

                            Annotations:

                            • Types of several speech abnormalities caused by nervous system damage that affects movement or sensation within body parts involved in speech
                            1. Flaccid Dysarthria

                              Annotations:

                              • Atrophy & fasciculations, hypotonia & hypoactive gag, nasal regurgitation; phonatory/resonatory abnormalities: continuous breathiness,  vocal fold weakness, pronounced hypernasality (rapid deterioration of speech -- myasthenia gravis)
                              1. Mixed Flaccid-Spastic
                                1. Flaccid
                                  1. fasciculations

                                    Annotations:

                                    • involuntary movements that cause visible movements of muscle fibers
                                  2. Spastic Dysarthria

                                    Annotations:

                                    • Pathologic oral reflex, hyperactive gag, pseudobulbar affect, Slow rate, slow and regular speech AMRs, strained voice quality, excess and equal stress
                                    1. Mixed Flaccid-Spastic
                                      1. Spasticity

                                        Annotations:

                                        • abnormally high levels of tension in resting muscles cuase by upper motor neuron damage
                                      2. Ataxic Dysarthria

                                        Annotations:

                                        • Irregular articulatory breakdowns, irregular speech AMRs, dysprosody, automatic speech no better than other speech
                                        1. Hypokinetic Dysarthria

                                          Annotations:

                                          • monopitch, monoloudness, reduced loudness and stress, rapid and blurred speech AMRs
                                          1. Hypokinetic
                                          2. Hyperkinetic Dysarthrias

                                            Annotations:

                                            • Involuntary movements, tremor, chorea, dystonia, abnormal noises interrupting speech
                                            1. Unilateral Upper Motor Neuron Dysarthria

                                              Annotations:

                                              • Mildness, rarely accompanied by resonance or voice abnormalities, no atrophy or fasciculations, Regular AMRs (even though breakdowns occur in speech)
                                            2. Apraxia

                                              Annotations:

                                              • Disruption of volitional movement sequences in the absence of sensory loss, weakness, paralysis, or incoordination of the muscles involved in the movements. Usually a consequence of damage in the premotor cortex.
                                              1. Apraxia of Speech

                                                Annotations:

                                                • A disorder of motor planning in the absence of impaired muscle control that affects voluntary positioning and sequencing of muscle movements for speech.
                                                • Regular AMRs, Irregular SMRs, better automatic speech, articulatory groping
                                                • Unlike aphasia, nonspeech modalities remain intact, attempt to correct articulatory errors, artic groping, errors influenced by artic complexity
                                                1. Oral Apraxia
                                              2. TBI
                                                1. Agitation, selective, sustained, and alternating attention, memory impairments, visual processing impairments, executive function
                                                  1. Language is irrelevant, confabulatory, curcumlocutory, tangential, fragmented, and noncohesive but linguistically acceptable
                                                    1. Fail to recognize social conventions
                                                      1. Comprehend literal and well structured, but struggle to comprehend nonstructured and non-literal
                                                        1. Standard aphasia tests neglect organization of complex information, appreciation of nonliteral meanings, & pragmatics
                                                      2. Degenerative Diseases
                                                        1. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
                                                          1. Parkinson's Disease
                                                            1. Huntingtons Disease

                                                              Annotations:

                                                              • a hereditary  neurologic disease characterized by progressive chorea and dementia
                                                            2. Cerebral Vascular Accident

                                                              Annotations:

                                                              • Temporary or permanent disruption of brain function due to interruption of its blood supply
                                                              • Signs (all sudden onset): one-sided weakness/numbness, vision impairment, difficulty speaking/understanding, dizziness/falling, severe headache
                                                              1. Can Cause Aphasia
                                                                1. Can Cause Motor Speech Disorders
                                                            3. DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
                                                              1. Intellectual Disability
                                                                1. Specific Language Impairment
                                                                  1. Subtle Phonological deficits

                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                    •    Complex phonological production (Multi-syllabics, alliteration, nonwords) Phonological awareness Phonological memory & retrieval (Nonword repetition, Rapid Auditory Naming)
                                                                    1. Semantic deficits

                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                      • Restricted vocabulary Reduced depth of word meaning Poor semantic organization & categorization Less developed semantic relationships Difficulties with multiple meanings Difficulties with abstract & relational terms Indefinite vocabulary Difficulties w/ semantic  relations   
                                                                      1. Syntactic deficits

                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                        • May have generally delayed morphological development Marked difficulty with verbal morphology esp. verb tense and agreement, auxiliary verbs, and copula verbs even compared with younger normally developing children with similar MLU.
                                                                        1. Pragmatic difficulties

                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                          • For most SLI, pragmatic issues are very important, but often reflect difficulties rather than cause them Conversation:   Less out put overall and less Fluent, Assertive, Persuasive, Polite & Tactful, Clear & Complete Difficulties Realizing communication breakdowns, Clarifying, Requesting clarification 
                                                                        2. Autism Spectrum Disorder

                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                          • Childhood disorder with core deficits in socialization, communication, play, and behavior.
                                                                          1. Social behaviors
                                                                            1. Nonverbal behaviors
                                                                              1. No peer relationships
                                                                                1. lack of spontaneous seeking to share
                                                                                  1. Lack of social/emotional reciprocity
                                                                                  2. Qualitative communication Impairments
                                                                                    1. delay/lack spoken language
                                                                                      1. impairment in initiating or sustaining conversation
                                                                                        1. stereotyped / repetitive use of language
                                                                                          1. Echolalia

                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                            • tendency to repeat back what is said
                                                                                          2. Lack of spontaneous make-believe play or social imitative play
                                                                                          3. Restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests and activities
                                                                                            1. pattern of interest abnormal in intensity or focus
                                                                                              1. Routines & Rituals
                                                                                                1. stereotyped & repetitive motor mannerisms
                                                                                                  1. preoccupation with parts of objects
                                                                                              2. RESEARCH
                                                                                                1. Design
                                                                                                  1. Types of Variables
                                                                                                    1. Independent variable

                                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                                      • What is controlled or preexisting
                                                                                                      1. Dependent variable

                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                        • that which is measured
                                                                                                        1. Independent Variable

                                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                                          • That which is controlled or pre-existing
                                                                                                          1. Dependent Variable

                                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                                            • that which is measured
                                                                                                          2. Types of Studies
                                                                                                            1. Descriptive
                                                                                                              1. Correlational
                                                                                                                1. Semi-experimental
                                                                                                                  1. Experimental
                                                                                                                    1. Review
                                                                                                                      1. Meta-Analysis
                                                                                                                        1. Experimental

                                                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                                                          • Random assignment of participants
                                                                                                                          1. Quasi-experimental

                                                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                                                            • Multiple groups or multiple measurements
                                                                                                                            1. Nonexperimental
                                                                                                                            2. Types of Bias
                                                                                                                              1. Selection Bias

                                                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                                                • the selection of individuals, groups or data for analysis such that proper randomization is not achieved, thereby ensuring that the sample obtained is not representative of the population intended to be analyzed
                                                                                                                                1. Sampling Bias

                                                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                                                  • when a sample is not representative
                                                                                                                                  1. Selection Bias

                                                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                                                    • Experimenter or participant choices skew the experimental results
                                                                                                                                    1. Validity
                                                                                                                                      1. Internal Validity

                                                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                                                        • Internal validity refers to how well an experiment is done, especially whether it avoids confounding (more than one possible independent variable [cause] acting at the same time). The less chance for confounding in a study, the higher its internal validity is.
                                                                                                                                        1. External Vallidity

                                                                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                                                                          • the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to other situations and to other people.
                                                                                                                                        2. Participation Bias

                                                                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                                                                          • in which the results become non-representative because the participants disproportionately possess certain traits which affect the outcome. 
                                                                                                                                          1. Publication Bias

                                                                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                                                                            • what is likely to be published, among what is available to be published
                                                                                                                                            1. Reporting Bias

                                                                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                                                                              • reporting bias is defined as "selective revealing or suppression of information" by subjects
                                                                                                                                            2. Subject Grouping
                                                                                                                                              1. Cohort
                                                                                                                                                1. Cross-Sectional
                                                                                                                                                  1. Longitudinal
                                                                                                                                                  2. Descriptive
                                                                                                                                                    1. Case-study
                                                                                                                                                      1. Natural observation
                                                                                                                                                        1. Survey
                                                                                                                                                        2. Correlational
                                                                                                                                                          1. Case-control Study
                                                                                                                                                            1. Observational Study
                                                                                                                                                            2. Semi-experimental
                                                                                                                                                              1. Field Experiment
                                                                                                                                                                1. Quasi-experimental
                                                                                                                                                                2. Review
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Literature review
                                                                                                                                                                    1. Systematic review
                                                                                                                                                                    2. Meta-Analysis
                                                                                                                                                                    3. Data Analysis
                                                                                                                                                                      1. Chi-squared

                                                                                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                        • used with categorical data to see whether any difference in frequencies between your sets of results is due to chance
                                                                                                                                                                        1. t-test

                                                                                                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                          • enables you to see whether two samples are different when you have data that are continuous and normally distributed. The test allows you to compare the means and standard deviations of the two groups to see whether there is a statistically significant difference between them.
                                                                                                                                                                          1. Mann-Whitney U-test

                                                                                                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                            • It is used when comparing ordinal data (i.e. data that can be ranked or has some sort of rating scale) that are not normally distributed. Measurements must be categorical – for instance, yes or no – and independent of each other (e.g. a single person cannot be represented twice)
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Spearman's Rho

                                                                                                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                              • tests the relationship between two variables in a dataset. If there is a statistically significant relationship, you can reject the null hypothesis, which may be that there is no link between the two variables.
                                                                                                                                                                              • NONPARAMETRIC
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Pearson's r

                                                                                                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                • Pearson r correlation is widely used in statistics to measure the degree of the relationship between linear related variables. 
                                                                                                                                                                                • For the Pearson r correlation, both variables should be normally distributed.  Other assumptions include linearity and homoscedasticity
                                                                                                                                                                                1. ANOVA

                                                                                                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                  • tests for the difference in means between two or more groups
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. MANOVA

                                                                                                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) is simply an ANOVA with several dependent variables, tests for the difference in two or more vectors of means.
                                                                                                                                                                                2. Evidence-Based Practice
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Clinical Experience
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Current, Quality Research
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Client Needs and Preferences
                                                                                                                                                                                    2. BASIC CONCEPTS
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Language

                                                                                                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                        • An organized system of symbols shared among a group of people, with rules governing the form, content, and use of that language.
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Domains
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Phonology

                                                                                                                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                            • study of how sounds are put together to form words
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Phoneme

                                                                                                                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                              • linguistically contrastive or significant sounds (or sets of sounds) of a language
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Allophone

                                                                                                                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                • one of two or more variants of the same phoneme
                                                                                                                                                                                                • linguistically non-significant variants of each phoneme
                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Morphology

                                                                                                                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                • Study of word structure, describes how words are formed out of the basic elements of language (called morphemes)
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Morpheme

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Smallest meaningful unit of language
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Allomorph

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                    • any of the versions of a morpheme, such as the plural endings s (as in bats ), z (as in bugs ), and iz (as in buses ) for the plural morpheme.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Syntax

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Word order and overall structure of a sentence, the arrangement of words to form meaningful sentences, and a collection of rules that specify the ways and order in which words may be combined to form sentences in a particular language
                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Semantics

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The study of word meaning in a language. Involves the lexicon and the rules governing meaning relations among words
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Pragmatics

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The use and purpose of language as it relates to knowing why to communicate what to say, how to say it, when to say it, and to whom to say it. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. .........................FORM.........................
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. >>>>>CONTENT>>>>>
                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. *****USE*****
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Difference

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                              • A communication difference is a variation of speech that is shared by a group of individuals within a particular region or culture. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Disorder

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                • When a person has trouble understanding others (receptive language), or sharing thoughts, ideas, and feelings completely (expressive language), then he or she has a language disorder
                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Early Language Development
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Pretend Play
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Assimilation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Accommodation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Theory of Mind
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Communicative Intent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Language is intentional. Parents attribute intent when preintentional 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Joint attention
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Perlocutionary 0-8 mos

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Pre-intentional and pre-linguistic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Illocutionary 8-12 mos

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Intention but no language
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Locutionary

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Intent and Language
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