LIFE PROCESSES AND CELLS

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Biology KS3 Revision Year 8

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LIFE PROCESSES AND CELLS
  1. LIFE PROCESSES
    1. Living organisms have 7 things that they need to be able to do to count as being 'alive'. You can remember them as MRS GREN
      1. 1 MOVEMENT all living things move
        1. 2 RESPIRATION turning food into energy
          1. 3 SENSITIVITY reacting and responding to the environment around you
            1. 6 EXCRETION getting rid of waste
              1. 4 GROWTH all living things grow
                1. 5 REPRODUCTION making more of the same kind
                  1. 7 NUTRITION taking in and using food
                2. PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS
                    1. CELL MEMBRANE controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell
                      1. CHLOROPLASTS contain chlorophyll (a green pigment) and it is here that photosynthesis takes place
                        1. CYTOPLASM the place where chemical reactions happen
                          1. VACUOLE contains a liquid (called cell sap) which helps keep the cell firm.
                            1. NUCLEUS carries genetic information and controls what happens inside the cell
                              1. CELL WALL provides shape and support (it is made from a tough substance called cellulose)
                              2. PLANT CELL
                                1. ANIMAL CELL
                                    1. CELL MEMBRANE controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell
                                      1. CYTOPLASM the place where chemical reactions happen
                                        1. NUCLEUS carries genetic information and controls what happens inside the cell
                                      2. Features that PLANT and ANIMAL cells have in COMMON
                                        1. They both have a CELL MEMBRANE, CYTOPLASM and NUCLEUS
                                      3. SPECIALISED CELLS
                                        1. PLANT
                                          1. Root hair cell
                                            1. Function: To absorb water and minerals
                                              1. SPECIAL FEATURES: Large surface area
                                                1. Leaf cell
                                                  1. FUNCTION: To absorb sunlight for photosynthesis
                                                    1. SPECIAL FEATURES: Large surface area with lots of chloroplasts
                                                  2. ANIMAL
                                                    1. Red blood cell
                                                      1. FUNCTION: To carry oxygen around the body
                                                        1. SPECIAL FEATURES: Shape gives it a large surface area for oxygen to pass through. Contains no nucleus so that it can carry more oxygen
                                                        2. Nerve cell
                                                          1. FUNCTION: to carry nerve impulses to different parts of the body
                                                            1. SPECIAL FEATURES: Are long with connections at each end. Can carry electrical signals.
                                                            2. Male reproductive cell (sperm cell)
                                                              1. FUNCTION: to reach and join with the female cell (egg)
                                                                1. SPECIAL FEATURES: Long tail for swimming and a head for getting into the female cell.
                                                                2. Female reproductive cell (egg cell)
                                                                  1. FUNCTION: to join with male cell and to provide food for the new cell that has been formed
                                                                    1. SPECIAL FEATURES: Large and contains lots of cytoplasm
                                                                3. CELLS, TISSUES AND ORGANS
                                                                    1. FOR EXAMPLE
                                                                      1. Organ systems carry out vital functions in the human body
                                                                        1. CIRCULATORY
                                                                          1. heart - pumps blood around the body
                                                                          2. RESPIRATORY
                                                                            1. lungs - part inside chest used for breathing. Bring oxygen into the body and remove carbon dioxide
                                                                            2. NERVOUS
                                                                              1. brain - controls the body's movement and is the centre of thought, feelings and memory
                                                                              2. DIGESTIVE
                                                                                1. stomach - receives food that has been swallowed and begins to digest it
                                                                                2. REPRODUCTIVE
                                                                                  1. ovaries - an organ in females where the egg cells are produced
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