LECTURE 22

Hoa Truong
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Hoa Truong
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Lecture 22 Petroleum system, chemistry & nature of petroleum

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LECTURE 22
  1. CHEMISTRY & NATURE OF PETROLEUM
    1. Hydrocarbons
      1. natural gas, crude oil, tar, asphalt (s), bitumen (s)
        1. ~85% C, ~15% H, small amount S,O,N,metals
          1. Isomers
            1. same no. atoms, different structure
            2. Types
              1. aliphatic
                1. Impurities
                  1. Sulfur: poisonous +corrosive
                    1. CO2: dilute HC, greenhouse, commercial exploitable
                      1. requires refining processes to separate different size HC, remove contanminations
                      2. saturated/ unsaturated, can compose of S,N,O instead of C.
                      3. aromatic
                        1. HC has specialised ring structures include both single + double bonds
                        2. Paraffin (alkane)
                          1. Only contain C +H, single bond, saturated
                            1. eg: methane
                              1. <4C: gas at Rtemp, >4 liquid
                                1. linear/branches
                                2. Naphtenes (cycloalkanes)
                                  1. HC contain 1/more ring structures
                                    1. eg: cyclopropane/cyclohexane
                                    2. Unsaturated
                                      1. double bonds (alkene)
                                        1. triple bond (alkyne)
                                      2. structure, H:C ratio -> properties
                                        1. Crude oil
                                          1. complex mixtures of HC molecules, varying amount of paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics, dissolved gas
                                          2. Natural gas
                                            1. Dry gas
                                              1. almost pure methane
                                              2. Wet gas
                                                1. contain significant of ethane + propane...
                                                2. LNG
                                                  1. liquified natural gas
                                              3. Oil formation volume factor
                                                1. Volume of oil at reservoir conditions required to produce 1 barrel of oil at stock tank condition (rb/stb)
                                                2. Gas-oil ratio
                                                  1. ratio of produced gas to produced oil (cubic feet gas/stock tank barrel of oil)
                                                  2. Energy content of oil and gas
                                                    1. from decomposing of living materials
                                                      1. Pour point
                                                        1. temp at which liquid become semi-solid
                                                        2. API gravity
                                                          1. weight of petroleum:water
                                                        3. PETROLEUM SYSTEM
                                                          1. provide: unifying concept of necessary factors, elements
                                                            1. each component has to be assess for risks
                                                              1. no direct method to locate petroleum elements
                                                                1. data from indirect evaluation techniques
                                                                  1. not guarantee hydrocarbons exist- dry hole
                                                                    1. must balance betw. risk vs. reward
                                                                    2. is a mature source of rock and all its generated hydrocarbon accummulation (elements + processes)
                                                                      1. essential processes
                                                                        1. trap formation - generation - migration - accumulation - preservation
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