Life in Germany

Ben C
Mind Map by , created over 4 years ago

Edexcel GCSE History mindmap for Topic 2C Life in Germany. This is a breakdown of the specification.

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Ben C
Created by Ben C over 4 years ago
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Life in Germany

Annotations:

  • http://www.memrise.com/course/81706/gcse-history-a-germany-1919-1945/
1 Weimar Germany and the rise of the Nazi Party
1.1 Support for the Nazi Party
1.1.1 Reasons for growth
1.1.1.1 Changing tactics

Annotations:

  • How the Nazis got their message across.
1.1.1.1.1 Rallies

Annotations:

  • -First one held in 1926. -Regular huge rallies with military-style marches and speeches by Hitler. -VERY popular with youth.
1.1.1.1.2 Meetings

Annotations:

  • -Ran evening classes to train members in public speaking. -Helped them to spread Nazi ideology.
1.1.1.1.3 Propoganda

Annotations:

  • -Goebbels managed propaganda. -Targeted specific groups with specific messages. -Anti-Jewish propaganda worked best with working class people.
1.1.1.1.4 Posters and newspapers

Annotations:

  • -Posters skilfully got their messages across. -Newspapers explained ideas in more depth.
1.1.1.1.5 Mein Kampf

Annotations:

  • -Published in 1925. -Promoted his aims: --Removing Jews from Germany. --Destroying Communism. --Expanding Germany. -The book became a bestseller.
1.1.1.2 Changing Nazi Party Organisation

Annotations:

  • 1. From local to national. 2. Targeting rural areas. 3. Organisations 4. SA FOTS
  • From local to national -Nazi headquarters stayed in Munich. -Branches were set up all over Germany. -Each Gau was led by a Gauleiter
  • Targeting rural areas -Nazis focused on winning support from farmers, who were finding times tough (especially after 1928)
  • Organisations -Various different organisations were set up for different groups: --Hitler Youth --Nazi Students' League --Teachers' League --Woman's League
  • SA -Image of SA CHANGED: now one of order and discipline.  -More young men were encouraged to join.
1.1.2 Reasons for increase after 1929
1.1.2.1 The appeal of Hitler

Annotations:

  • -Charismatic -Appeal to women -They wanted his babies.
1.1.2.2 The role of propoganda

Annotations:

  • Goebbels was a MASTER of propaganda. Used these methods to get message across: -Posters -Radio -Rallies -Newspapers -Parades and marches
1.1.2.3 The role of the SA

Annotations:

  • -By 1932, image of SA had improved dramatically. -Over 600,000 members. -Attracted young, unemployed people, who admired the parades through towns and cities. -Continued to disrupt Communist Party meetings.
1.1.3 Economical and political consequences for Germany after the Wall Street Crash 1929

Annotations:

  • US companies lost billions of dollars in value overnight, leaving banks and businesses ruined.
  • The Crash triggered a worldwide recession, with Germany suffering very badly.
1.1.3.1 Economic impact
1.1.3.1.1 US loans

Annotations:

  • US stopped lending money to Germany and DEMANDED all loans to be repaid.
1.1.3.1.1.1 German businesses

Annotations:

  • -Had to pay back loans. -No more investment from US. -Had to pay increases taxes. -Worldwide, no money to buy goods, so markets dried up.
1.1.3.1.1.1.1 German people

Annotations:

  • -Businesses reduced staff or closed. -Millions of workers and farm labourers lost their jobs. -Young people were badly affected by job losses. -With no work, and benefits slashed, families suffered terrible poverty.
1.1.3.1.1.2 German government

Annotations:

  • -Couldn't borrow money from US. -Refused to print more money. -Increased taxes. -Made cuts in unemployment benefit. -Gov workers had wages cut and some lost their jobs.
1.1.3.1.1.2.1 German people
1.1.3.2 Political impact

Annotations:

  • Weimar government was blamed for German dependence on US loans.
  • Highlighted lack of strong leadership (Stresemann had died before the Crash)
  • Two main parties in the coalition government (Centre Party and SDP) couldn't agree how to solve the crisis.
  • President Hindenburg used Article 48 to pass laws without Reichstag agreement. This made Germany a dictatorship.
  • New economic policies were very unpopular.
  • Extremist parties (Communists and Nazis) became more popular.
1.1.4 Nazi support in 1920's

Annotations:

  • -Young people. -Skilled workers. -Farmers. -Middle and upper classes who feared communism.
1.1.5 July 1932 vote

Annotations:

  • People voted for them because: -They shared dislikes (of communism for example) -Believed Nazi propaganda about Jews and gypsies.
  • -Agricultural workers -Middle classes -Working classes -Women -Young people -Upper classes and big businesses
1.2 Challenges and recovery 1923-29
1.2.1 Challenges of 1923
1.2.1.1 Invasion of the Ruhr
1.2.1.2 Hyperinflation

Annotations:

  • Inflation - ongoing increase in the price of things. Hyperinflation - extreme increase in prices in a short time.
1.2.1.2.1 Events leading to it

Annotations:

  • 1914-1918: Government printed more money to pay for WW1, but it didn't have more gold.
  • 1918-22 - The Weimar government printed more money for post-war shortages and asked for longer to pay for first reparations installment.
  • January 1923 - French troops invaded the Ruhr, taking raw good and materials. German workers went on strike.
  • Weimar government printed more money to pay strikers and make up for loss of coal, steel and iron production.
  • November 1923 - The German mark was worthless.
1.2.1.2.2 The effects

Annotations:

  • Good for: -Farmers, paid more for food. -People and businesses in debt. -Fixed rents for rooms or shops became very cheap. FPR
  • Bad: -People couldn't afford essentials. -Wages rose, not as quickly as prices. -Businesses went bankrupt. -People with fixed or monthly incomes suffered most. -Savings became worthless. -Blamed Weimar government, making it even more unpopular.
1.2.1.3 Munich Putsch

Annotations:

  • October 1923 -During the crisis of 1923, Hitler plotted with two nationalist politicians: Kahr and Lassow, to take over Munich in a revolution.  - 4th Oct: Kahr and Lassow called off the revolution, despite Hitler having troops ready.
  • 8th November 1923 -Hitler and 600 SA burst into a Munich beer hall, where Gustav von Kahr, head of the Bavarian government, was holding a meeting. -Hitler announced the revolution had begun. -Threatened everybody to rebel with him. -SA took: army headquarters and offices of local newspaper
  • 9th November 1923 -Hitler, Ludendorff and about 3000 other supporters marched through Munich, looking for more support. -KAHR had called in police and army reinforcements. -A gun battle resulted in 16 Nazi supporters being killed. -FAIL: Hitler and Ludendorff arrested.
1.2.1.3.1 Why?

Annotations:

  • There are 5 main reasons why the Nazi party wanted to take power in Munich.  Acronym: Mubalureun
  • 1. Mussolini had successfully taken over the Italian government in 1922.
  • 2. Bavarian government was right-wing and didn't like the Weimar government - Nazi thought they had support from them.
  • 3. Weimar government was unpopular with ordinary Germans especially after it began to pay reparations to the FRENCH in September.
  • 4. Hitler was an established leader, they had 50,000 supporters and the SA.
  • 5. General Ludendorff was close to Hitler - Nazis thought he could persuade the army to support them.
1.2.1.3.2 Consequences

Annotations:

  • -Nazi Party banned. -Leaders imprisoned. -Hitler's trial created public sympathy; Hitler received 5 year sentence. -Served just 9 months, writing Mein Kampf and making plans. -Nazis rethought tactics. -Now knew that an armed uprising WOULDN'T work.
1.2.1.3.3 F or S?

Annotations:

  • Failure: -Nazis were not organised. -Police were better prepared. -Too few people in Munich supported the Nazis. -Bavarian government didn't join the Nazis. -Neither the army not police supported the Nazis. -Putsch appeared a total failure - Hitler in prison, N.P Banned.
  • Success: -Failure caused Hitler and other party leaders to re-think tactics. -Gain of popularity, Mein Kampf became a bestseller. -Sympathetic to Nazi ideas. Party was banned for a short time and Hitler's sentence shortened.
1.2.2 Recovery after 1923 'Golden Years'
1.2.2.1 Gustav Stresemann and what he did

Annotations:

  • The Chancellor (Aug-Nov 1923) and then Foreign Secretary (1923-29), for the Weimar Government.
1.2.2.1.1 Introduction of the Rentenmark

Annotations:

  • November 1923  -Introduced the new currency: Rentenmark. -Stablised currency. -German people allowed confidence in it.
  • 1924 -Rentenmark converted to Reichsmark (backed with gold). -Gradually restored the value of German money.
1.2.2.1.2 Dawes and Young plans

Annotations:

  • 1924 - Dawes Plan -Reorganised reparations to USA -Brought foreign investment to Germany.
  • 1929 - Young Plan -Set timescale and reduced reparations. -France agreed to leave Rhineland early.
1.2.2.1.3 Locarno Treaties

Annotations:

  • 1925 -Improved relations with UK and France. -Guaranteed borders with Belgium, France and Italy.
1.2.2.1.4 Germany's entry into the League of Nations

Annotations:

  • 1926 -Germany recognised as a great power again.
1.2.2.1.5 End of Passive Resistance

Annotations:

  • November 1923 -Called off P.R and agreed to pay reparations. -French withdrew from Ruhr in 1925. -Poly of fulfillment allowed later negotiations over reparations.
1.3 The early years and the Weimar Republic 1918-23

Attachments:

1.3.1 Terms of the Treaty of Versailles

Annotations:

  • Rich Woman Make Terrible Windows R - Reparations W - War guilt M - Military restrictions T - Territorial changes W - Weapon limitations
1.3.1.1 Including German reactions

Annotations:

  • They hated it!
  • 'Stab in the back' theory -Common belief that the army was on the verge of winning war, but were betrayed. -These politicians were called the 'November Criminals' -All of this meant the Republic was doomed from the start
1.3.1.2 Problems this caused for the Weimar Republic

Annotations:

  • -Crisis of the Ruhr -Growth of Nationalism -Weakened Reichstag -The Kapp Putsch
1.3.2 Formation and constitution of the Weimar Republic

Annotations:

  • 'November Revolution' (1) -German port of Kiel - sailors mutinied -End of October 1918, refused to fight the British navy -Marched to Berlin to demand abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II -9th November - Kaiser abdicated
  • 'November Revolution' (2) -Friedrich Ebert (acting chancellor of Germany and chairman of SPD) -Set up Council of People’s Representatives (TEMP GOV)-Friedrich Ebert elected President-11th November - Armistice with Allies
1.3.2.1 Problems of the Weimar Republic

Annotations:

  • Payment of reparations and the loss of important industrial areas = economic problems for Germany.
  • -Both the German reaction and this problem WEAKENED the Weimar Republic. -Helped opponents to the W.R.; this included the Nazis.
1.3.2.1.1 Strengths and Weaknesses

Annotations:

  • STRENGTHS: -Most democratic country in the world. -State governments were continued = state traditions maintained.
  • BOTH: -(+) --(-) -PR meant all parties had FAIR share of Reichstag seats --Often led to short-lived, coalition governments -Article 48: President could protect Germany in a time of emergency --This could be ABUSED; didn't define an emergency.
  • WEAKNESSES: -Free speech gave opposition groups freedom to attack new government. -NO changes to army or judiciary (courts) -Voting system = issue carrying out unpopular policies. -President had power to appoint or dismiss Chancellor.
1.3.3 Opposition groups to the Weimar Republic

Annotations:

  • The Spartacists The Freikorps Nazi Party (NSDAP)
1.3.3.1 Spartacist Uprising, 1919

Annotations:

  • 5th January 1919 -Spartacists took over the government's newspaper and telegraph bureau. -Tried to organize a general strike in Berlin. -Badly organised -Received little support from people of Berlin.
  • 6th January 1919 -Ebert created a volunteer force of 4,000 ex-soldiers, with help of army leaders. -Called Friekorps. -Hard men who liked to fight and HATED communism.
  • 15th January 1919 -Spartacists were crushed. -Luxemburg and Liebknecht were arrested. -During transportation to prison, they were SHOT AND KILLED for 'resisting arrest' -Genuinely shocked Ebert. 
1.3.3.1.1 Spartacists

Annotations:

  • -Spartacist League was the name of the German Communist Party -Inspired by 1917 Russian Revolution. -Led by ROSA LUXEMBURG and KARL LIBKNECHT
1.3.3.1.2 Why was it important?

Annotations:

  • -Uprising highlighted the instability of the Weimar Republic. -A socialist, left wing government had been attacked by an even more left wing group.
  • -Uprising left new republic dependent on the support of the army. -For this support, the Republic promised to not change leadership of army.
1.3.3.2 The Kapp Putsch, 1920

Annotations:

  • March 1920 -Freikorps, led by Dr. Wolfgang Kapp, occupied Berlin. -Weimar government asked army to suppress Putsch. -Asked trade unions to organise strike. -Army REFUSED, trade unions ACCEPTED. -General strike caused such chaos that Kapp couldn't rule Germany and was forced to FLEE!
1.3.3.2.1 Freikorps

Annotations:

  • -Groups of ex-soldiers, mainly right-wing nationalists. -Used by Weimar government to squash Spartacist Revolt. -Disbanded in Jan 1920 -Due to decrease in German army AND trying to take power in the Kapp Putsch
1.3.3.2.2 Why was it important?

Annotations:

  • (+) Republic had gained much support from the workers of Berlin.
  • (-) Revealed lack of support from the army who sympathized with aims of the Putsch.
1.3.3.3 Formation of the National Socialist Party

Annotations:

  • -Nazi Party = Right wing -Own newspapers and had public meetings to spread ideology. -Adolf Hitler showed GREAT talent for public speaking.
  • -SA - Stormtroopers -Violent arm of party. -Used to break up communist meetings and beating people.
1.3.3.3.1 Policies 1920-1922

Annotations:

  • -Nationalism -Socialism -Anti-communism -Anti-semitism
  • Nationalism -Belief in the greatness of Germany. -Hatred of Treaty of Versailles.
  • Socialism -Wanted workers to get a share of company's profits. -Land to be shared out more.
  • Anti-communism -Hatred of Russia and of the KPD. -Associated with Jews and Slavs (viewed as inferior races) -Against communist ideals of destroying private enterprise and property.
  • Anti-semitism -Hatred of Jews -Belief that they were the cause of Germany's problems.
2 Government of the Third Reich to 1945
2.1 Creation of the Nazi State
2.1.1 Reasons why and steps by which Hitler was able to gain total power

Annotations:

  • -After the political manoeuvring of Hindenburg, von Papen and von Schleicher, Hitler became Chancellor on 30th January 1933. -Hindenburg and von Papen were convinced they could control Hitler, and get rid of him later. 
2.1.1.1 Reasons

Annotations:

  • -Hindenburg appointed him. -Von Papen persuaded Hindenburg to appoint him. -In July and November 1932 the Nazi Party got the most votes. -Von Schleicher resigned and Hindenburg didn't have a choice. -Hindenburg and von Papen thought they could control Hitler.
2.1.2 Elections of 1932

Annotations:

  • July 1932: Von Papen's Centre Party holds elections to gain support but loses seats. Nazis become largest party, but Hitler not made chancellor. 
  • November 1932: Von Papen calls another election and Centre Party loses more seats. Nazi party loses more seats, but are still the largest party.
2.1.3 Role of von Papen and von Hindenburg
2.1.3.1 Von Papen

Annotations:

  • -Chancellor from May to November 1932. -Led the Centre Party
  • -Furious when Von Schleicher became Chancellor and started negotiating with Hitler. -Persuaded Hindenburg to appoint Hitler after V.S. resigned, believing they could control Hitler. -Became Vice-Chancellor to Hitler 1933-34.
2.1.3.2 Von Hindenburg

Annotations:

  • -Became President in April 1925. -In Depression, used Emergency Powers to rule without Reichstag after 1930. -Appointed von Papen, then von Schleicher as Chancellor in 1932. -Neither could form a gov. -Distrusted Hitler and Nazis (despite being Right Wing). -Refused to appoint Hitler as Chancellor, even when he had the biggest majority. -At the end of January 1932, von Papen persuaded him that Hitler was only option. -Made Hitler Chancellor on condition that von Papen was vice-chancellor. -Thought he could control Hitler.
2.1.4 Key events of 1933
2.1.4.1 Reichstag Fire

Annotations:

  • -27th February 1933, the Reichstag was burned down. -Inside was communist Marius van der Lubbe, who confessed. -Hitler accused German Communist Party and arrested 4000 communists.  -8th February. Hindenburg passed Emergency decree.
2.1.4.2 Enabling Act

Annotations:

  • -Gave Hitler the power to make any law he wanted for four years without the consent of the Reichstag. -Act meant Germany became a dictatorship.
2.1.4.2.1 Passing the Act

Annotations:

  • 444 votes to 91.
  • This happened because: -An emergency decree meant that 81 communist members couldn't take up seats. -Hitler made deals with National and Centre parties. -The SA surrounded the meeting and threatened opposition politicians.
2.1.4.3 Political parties and trade unions

Annotations:

  • The Enabling Act allowed Hitler to get rid of any opposition to the Nazis.
  • Trade unions: these were replaced with the German Labour Front. Many union officials were arrested on 2nd May 1933.
  • Other political parties: in May 1933, the SDP and Communist Party offices and funds were taken by the Nazis. In July 1933, other political parties were banned.
  • State parliaments: these were closed down on 31st Match 1933 and reorganised with Nazi majorities. They were completely abolished in January 1934.
2.1.4.4 Emergency decree

Annotations:

  • Decree for the Protection of the People and the State, gave the state the power to: -Arrest and detain people without trial for as long as necessary. -Search and confiscate property. -Read post and listen to telephone calls. -Censor the press. -Stop people organising meetings.
2.1.5 Key events of 1934
2.1.5.1 Night of the Long Knives

Annotations:

  • -30th June 1934 -Hitler arranged a meeting with Röhm and other SA leaders. -Leaders arrested by SS and taken to Munich to be shot. -In the following days, others were killed: --Kurt von Schleicher  --Gregor Strasser
2.1.5.1.1 Result

Annotations:

  • -Few people left to rival Hitler. -Army swore allegiance to Hitler personally in August. -SS established as a major force.
2.1.5.1.2 Why

Annotations:

  • -SA no longer needed to maintain Nazi power. -Army wanted SA to be controlled -SA powerful enough to overthrow Hitler. -SA had nearly 2 million violent members and was a threat. -SA leaders had bad reputations. -Ongoing power struggle between Heinrich Himmler (SS) and Röhm (SA).
2.1.5.2 Death of von Hindenburg

Annotations:

  • -Hindenburg was the only person senior Hitler. -August 1934, he died. -Within hours, Hitler declared himself Führer (leader), and took on the president's powers.
2.1.5.3 Nature of Hitler's role as Führer

Annotations:

  • -Portrayed as a God-like figure. -Sacrificed his own happiness to serve Germany. -A soldier of the people who could make Germany great again. -People could see and meet him on his frequent tours. -He featured in much Nazi propaganda, and gave speeches at rallies and on the radio. -People swore allegiance to him personally and gave the "Heil Hitler" salute. -He gave his trusted supporters wide-ranging powers.
2.1.6 Von Schleicher

Annotations:

  • -Army's political adviser to President Hindenburg. -Advised Hindenburg not to re-appoint von Papen in November (feared violence from extremists). -President made von Schleicher Chancellor instead. -Couldn't form a government and LOST support of Hindenburg. -Resigned believing von Papen would succeed him.
2.2 Nazi methods of control
2.2.1 Nazi police state

Annotations:

  • -New laws. -The SS enforced 'protective custody' (breaking new laws or opposing the Nazis). -Gestapo spied on people, by reading mail or listening to phone calls. -Block wardens. -People were encouraged to inform on people close to them. -Law courts were under Nazi rule (Judges had sworn loyalty to Hitler). NO trial by jury. -Concentration camps.
2.2.2 Role of SS and Himmler
2.2.2.1 Role of SS

Annotations:

  • -Created in 1925 as a small group of 'bodyguards' for Hitler. -After 1929, was led by Himmler. -Grew under Himmler, acted as the police of the Nazi State. -Unlimited powers to search property, and arrest and imprison people WITHOUT trial! -Ran concentration and death camps. -Helped get rid of SA on the Night of the Long Knives.
2.2.3 Role of concentration camps and local wardens

Annotations:

  • -Prisoners taken to these for 'questioning', imprisonment, torture and re-education. -Dachau - 1933 (first established) -Soon developed all over Germany. -Conditions were bad. -Inmates were brutally treated and forced to do hard labour. -Deaths from disease or starvation.
  • -Local wardens given 40 households to spy on for suspicious behaviour. -This would include breaking new laws.
2.2.4 Laws restricting civil liberties

Annotations:

  • It was a crime to listen to: -Foreign radio. -Say anything against Hitler. -Tell an anti-Nazi joke.
2.2.5 Control of the press
2.2.6 Political parties and opposition groups and individuals
2.2.7 Control of Churches

Annotations:

  • Main reasons include; -Catholic Concordat. -Reich Church-Churchmen/priests who disagreed with Nazis sent to CC's-Catholic schools were closed and youth organisations made illegal.
2.2.7.1 Establishing of the Concordat

Annotations:

  • -July 1933. -Hitler let Catholics worship and run their own schools and organisations. -In return, Pope stayed out of German affairs. -Agreement broke down within a year.
2.2.7.2 The Reich Church

Annotations:

  • -Founded n 1933. -Made up of about 2000 Protestant churches. -Supported the Nazis. -Led by Ludwig Müller. -Some members wore Nazi uniform.
2.2.8 The role of Goebbels

Annotations:

  • -Central role as Nazi Minister of Enlightenment and Propaganda.  -Very skillful at spreading Nazi ideology. -Controlled newspapers, the radio, book publishing, films and the arts.
2.2.9 The uses of censorship

Annotations:

  • -Public burning of books by Jewish writers or others who disagreed with Nazi views. -Radio producers, playwrights, filmmakers and newspapers were told what to say. -Newspapers opposing the Nazis were closed. -Only radios that couldn't receive foreign stations were made.
2.2.10 Purpose and effectiveness of different types of propoganda

Annotations:

  • -Posters showing Nazi beliefs were displayed everywhere. -The cinema showed propaganda films, but mainly entertainment films that had subtle Nazi messages. -Huge rallies and military parades were held. -Nazis encouraged artists and playwrights to produce work highlighting Nazi ideas.  -Modern art and culture (jazz music) was BANNED. -Hitler made radio speeches.
2.2.10.1 Effectiveness

Annotations:

  • Military parades and rallies -Projects strength of Nazis. --Makes Germans proud of their country. --OR fill them with terror depending on their viewpoint.
2.3 Opposition and resistance to the Nazi government
2.3.1 Churches

Annotations:

  • Although Hitler tried to suppress Church opposition, Catholic priests and Protestant ministers and pastors still spoke out AGAINST Nazi Policies. Thousands were arrested and sent to concentration camps.
  • In 1941, the Action T4 euthanasia programme ended when the Catholic Cardinal Galen spoke out against it.
  • Pastor Dietrich Bonhoeffer spoke out, particularly against Nazi Jewish policies. He was arrested, sent to a concentration camp and executed.
  • Many Protestant Churches joined the Confessional Church in opposition to the Reich Church.
2.3.1.1 Protestant

Annotations:

  • The Confessional Church -Founded in 1934 -Made up of about 6000 Protestant churches. -Opposed the Nazis. -Led my Martin Niemöller. -Were repressed by the Nazis.
2.3.1.2 Catholic

Annotations:

  • Hitler was worried that the Catholic Church would oppose him because Catholics: -Were loyal to the Pope. -Usually supported the Centre Party. -Sent their children to Catholic schools and the Catholic youth organisation. 
2.3.2 Significance of Pastor Niemöller

Annotations:

  • Niemöller originally supported Hitler but: -Changed views when Reich church was set up. -1934 - set up Confessional Church. -Frequently spoke out against the Nazis. -July 1937 - arrested and sent to prison for 7 months. Continued attacking Nazi policies when he was released. -Arrested again and spent seven years in concentration camps until the end of WW2. 
2.3.3 The White Rose Group (1942-3)

Annotations:

  • -Set up at Munich University by Hans and Sophie Scholl and Kurt Huber. -White rose was a symbol for justice; the group was pacifist. -Hans had seen the murder of Jews and other non-Aryans on the Eastern Front. -Group let people know of the horrors that were happening. -Created and distributed leaflets opposing the Nazis and the war. -All three leaders were eventually caught and executed.
2.3.4 July plot of 1944

Annotations:

  • -Operation Valkyrie -Count von Stauffenberg devised this plan to assassinate Hitler, using a bomb in his briefcase. -20th July 1944 - Military conference in East Prussia; von Stauffenberg tries to blow up Hitler. -Bomb exploded, but Hitler was protected by a table. -Von Stauffenberg, along with 5746 others were executed for this role. -Highlights deep opposition to Hitler within the army towards the end of the war.
2.3.5 Reasons for lack of opposition

Annotations:

  • -Many people resisted privately, not openly. -Nazi policies improved many Germans' lives. -Opposition groups were banned. -People feared the SS, Gestapo and concentration camps. -There was a large number of informers. -There was also genuine support for Hitler.
2.3.6 The Edelweiss Pirates

Annotations:

  • -Small groups that opposed the Hitler Youth. -Boys wore check shirts and dark trousers, and girls wore make-up and permed their hair. -The edelweiss was their symbol. -They read and listened to banned media, like jazz, and wrote anti-Nazi graffiti. -They spread Allied propaganda leaflets. -They gave shelter to army deserters. -Frequently attacked members of the Hitler Youth and in 1944, they killed the head of the Cologne Gestapo. -Some were caught and hanged.
3 Social impact of the Nazi State in 1945
3.1 Nazi policies towards women and the young
3.1.1 Nazi policies towards young people and women
3.1.1.1 Their importance to the Nazi state and Party

Annotations:

  • Nazis wanted to manipulate the children in order to create loyal Nazis which would prepare them for a future in the Third Reich. 
  • Women would reproduce and grow the population, so that there were more Nazis to carry on the legacy of the Third Reich. 
3.1.2 Nazi Education
3.1.2.1 Aims

Annotations:

  • -To prepare girls to be good wives and mothers. -To create loyal Nazis. -To glorify Germany and the Nazi Party. -To turn boys into strong soldiers who would fight for Germany. -To teach Nazi beliefs about race. -To put across key Nazi ideals.
3.1.2.2 Control

Annotations:

  • SCHOOLS -Children had to attend state school until aged 14. -Separate schools for girls and boys. -Optional schools are 14: National Political Educational Institutes and Adolf Hitler Schools. -All schools followed a set curriculum - different for boys and girls.
  • TEACHERS -Compulsory for teachers to be Nazi Party members. -Those who didn't teach Nazi ideas were sacked. -Teachers' camps taught them how to use Nazi ideas in their teaching. -Nearly all teachers joined the Nazi Teachers' Association. 
  • SUBJECTS -15% of time - PE. This ensured a healthy and strong population. -Girls taught domestic skills, while boys were taught science and military skills. -Both sexes taught traditional subjects: German, History, Geography and Maths. -New subjects: Race studies and Eugenics (selective breeding) were taught to both sexes.
  • PROPAGANDA -All lessons began and ended with the Hitler salute. -Form 1935, all textbooks had to be approved by the Nazi Party. -Traditional subjects were rewritten to glorify Germany, including great German writers and History. -Racial ideas and anti-semitism were embedded within subjects.
3.1.3 Role and effectiveness of youth movements 1933-45
3.1.3.1 Military role in war years

Annotations:

  • -From 1940, the groups became involved in helping the war effort. -By 1943, the Hitler Youth had become a military reserve - members as young as 12 joined the army.
3.1.3.2 Nazi Youth groups

Annotations:

  • ALL overseen by: Balder von Shirach. -Young German Folk (boys aged 10-14)-Young Girls (girls aged 14-18).-Hitler Youth (boys aged 14-18)-League of German Maidens (girls aged 14-18).
3.1.3.3 Uses

Annotations:

  • -They ensured that Nazi control of children when they weren't at school. -All other youth groups were closed down. -Like schools, they concentrated on creating loyal Nazis and preparing children for their future roles.
3.1.3.4 Hitler Youth Law

Annotations:

  • Made in 1936: this law made it difficult not to join a youth group. From 1939, joining one was COMPULSORY.
3.1.3.5 Problems

Annotations:

  • -Not all young people joined. -Some children found the activities boring. -Groups altered family life because they took up time at weekends and evenings. -Some parents didn't like them because they taught about allegiance to Hitler and they encouraged children to spy. -Conscription meant there was a shortage of adult leaders.
3.1.4 Role of women + successfulness of women policies
3.1.4.1 Family

Annotations:

  • P: Women should get married. The Law for Encouragement of Marriage, 1933, lent money to couples if the wife left work. S: The number of marriages did increase, but it's not clear if this was due to Nazi policy.
  • P: Women should have at least 4 children (let off 1/4 of loan repayments for each child they had). German Women's Enterprise gave women medals for having children (bronze - 4, silver - 6, gold - 8) and ran classes and radio programmes on household topics.  S: GWE had six million members, which implies that many women welcomes Nazi policies. Birth rate increased but this may have been due to the improving economy. Few women had more than two children. 
3.1.4.2 Society and employment

Annotations:

  • P: Women should not work, especially those who were married. Many professional women LOST their jobs. S: 1933-36, number of employed women fell. Rose again because of the workforce shortage during the war. Employers preferred women to men because their wages were 2/3 that of men.
3.1.4.3 Changes to their role during pre-war period and war years
3.1.4.4 Ideal woman

Annotations:

  • -Natural appearance (long hair tied back, no make-up). -Wore traditional clothes. -Fair haired and blue eyed. -Sturdily built. -Non-drinker/smoker. -Would marry and have children. -Believed in the Nazi ideas of Kinder, Küche, Kirche (children, kitchen, church). -Would not go to university. -Would stay at home rather than go to work. 
3.1.5 Woman contribution: German Home Front 1939-45
3.2 Economic changes
3.2.1 Impact of economic policies to reduce unemployment
3.2.1.1 The New Plan

Annotations:

  • -Ran by Dr Hjalmar Schacht, Minister of the Economy. -Aimed to reduce unemployment and make Germany self-sufficient. -Successfully limited imports. -Made trade agreements with other countries for vital supplies in return for German goods. -Plan successfully increased trade and production (more jobs). -Schacht lost his job in 1937 due to a disagreement about rearmament. 
3.2.1.2 Labour service

Annotations:

  • -Called the RAD (Reichsarbeitsdienst). -Started by Weimar government. -From July 1935, compulsory for all men aged 18-25 to serve six months on this scheme. -Work on Job Creation Schemes and other public works such as draining marshes. -Many HATED RAD: the pay was low, the hours long and the work boring.
3.2.1.3 Four Year Plan

Annotations:

  • -Run by Hermann Göring. -Whole economy was geared towards rearmament and preparing for war. -Plan cost millions but wasn't a success at making Germany less dependent on foreign imports (autarky). -Used prisoners in labour and concentration camps as a labour force. -Created more jobs in manufacturing army goods. -Increased the army from 100,000 men in 1933 to 1,400,000 in 1939.
3.2.1.4 Job Creation Schemes
3.2.1.4.1 Built 7000km of autobahns

Annotations:

  • Roads
3.2.1.4.2 Constructed public buildings
3.2.1.4.3 Subsidised private firms like car manufacturers
3.2.1.4.4 Construction for the 1936 Olympics
3.2.2 Changes in the standard of living for German workers
3.2.2.1 German Labour Front

Annotations:

  • The Deutsche Arbeitsfront (DAF) replaced trade unions. Workers had to be members. It ran several schemes.
3.2.2.1.1 Strength through Joy (KdF)

Annotations:

  • -Kraft durch Freude -Aimed to increase productivity by making workers happy. -It provided low-cost or free activities (e.g. holidays, concerts) for hard workers.
3.2.2.1.2 Beauty of Labour (SdA)

Annotations:

  • -Schönheit der Arbeit -Aimed to improve conditions by: --Reducing noise in workplaces. --Providing canteens. --Building swimming pools. -Workers had to help construct these in their spare time. -VERY unpopular scheme.
3.2.2.1.3 The Volkswagen

Annotations:

  • -Workers paid 5 marks a week towards buying a car. -No cars bought by 1939. -Money went towards rearmament. -NOT refunded to workers.
3.2.2.2 Better off/ Worse off

Annotations:

  • BETTER OFF -More jobs created, most men in work. -Average weekly wages rose from 86 marks (1932) to 109 marks (1939). -Beauty of Labour - better conditions. -Strength through Joy - better leisure activities for workers.
  • WORSE OFF -Few rights - trade unions abolished. -Cost of living rose, which cancelled out wage increase. -Average working hours increased form 43 hours per week (1933) to 47 (1939). -Few workers could afford the best activities and holidays provided by KdF.
3.2.2.2.1 Specific groups

Annotations:

  • Women -Some wanted to work. -Others were happy to stay at home and have children. 
  • Farmers -Benefitted from rising food prices. -Some had help from the Labour Service. -Others lost workers to the army and factories. 
  • Businesses -Some benefitted from closure of Jewish businesses. -Large businesses had EXTRA opportunities due to rearmament and subsidies. -Some used forced labour from concentration camps. -No trade unions problems.
3.2.3 Wartime hardships
3.2.4 Invisible unemployment

Annotations:

  • Government figures for showing unemployment were falling, but they didn't include the following groups: -Jews being forced out of jobs. -Women being dismissed or leaving their jobs. -Unmarried men under 25 doing RAD. -Opponents of the regime sent to concentration camps.
3.3 Nazi treatment of minorities including the 'Final Solution'
3.3.1 Importance of Nazi beliefs in Aryan supremacy and 'the master race'

Annotations:

  • -Aryan supremacy was important because it allowed for selective breeding. -This meant that the Nazi's could create a pure race. -This would allow the Reich to continue being an exclusive pure state.
  • -Aryan supremacy was important because it allowed for selective breeding. -This meant that the Nazi's could create a pure race. -This would allow the Reich to continue being an exclusive pure state.
3.3.1.1 Nazi Racial Hierarchy

Annotations:

  • -Aryans ('the master race'). -Other White Western Europeans -Eastern Europeans -Black people and gypsies. -Jews.
3.3.1.2 'Non-perfect' Aryans

Annotations:

  • -Mentally ill people were put into 'care homes' and sterilized. -Same happened to mentally or physically disabled people - they were killed later on. -Homosexuals were put in concentration camps. Subjected to medical experiments to 'correct' their sexuality. -Vagrants were seen as 'work shy'. Many were put in C.C's.
  • -Mentally ill people were put into 'care homes' and sterilized. -Same happened to mentally or physically disabled people - they were killed later on. -Homosexuals were put in concentration camps. Subjected to medical experiments to 'correct' their sexuality. -Vagrants were seen as 'work shy'. Many were put in C.C's.
3.3.2 Treatment of minority groups
3.3.2.1 Gypsies

Annotations:

  • -Threat as they were Non-Aryan and thought to be work-shy. -30,000 in Germany. -Nazis determined to prevent them mixing with Aryans. -1935 - marriages between gypsies and Aryans were banned -1938 -  a decree for the 'Struggle against Gypsy Plague' was issued. -This forced Gypsies to register.
3.3.2.2 Mentally ill

Annotations:

  • -Nazis convinced that mental illness was hereditary and could not be cured. -Sterilized the mentally ill. -1945 - nearly 300,000 sterilized. -After outbreak of WW2, Nazi actions became more severe. -Set up the "Public Ambulance Service Ltd" to kill mentally ill. -By 1945, 70,000 murdered.
3.3.2.3 Black people

Annotations:

  • -Seen as Untermenschen. -Nuremberg Laws of 1935 banned marriage between Germany Aryans and black people. -Nazi treated black people like Gypsies. -Sterilized any children who were born to German women by black soldiers, who were stationed in the Rhineland after WW1.
3.3.2.4 Vagrants

Annotations:

  • -Included: beggars, men moving from town to town trying to find work and young people who had left home. -Nazis forced these groups to work. -In 1938, SS rounded up 100,000 vagrants and placed them in concentration camps.
3.3.3 Changes in discrimination and persecution 1933-39
3.3.3.1 Concentration camps
3.3.3.2 The Shop Boycott

Annotations:

  • -SA organised a one-day boycott of Jewish shops, lawyers and doctors. -Some property damage. -Jews working in government jobs (including some teachers) were sacked. -Jewish actors and musicians were banned from public performance.
3.3.3.3 Nuremberg Laws

Annotations:

  • -Passed in 1935. -Denied Jews the basic right of German citizenship. -Reich Citizenship Law made Jews 'subjects' rather than citizens. -Jews lost right to vote. -Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honour banned marriages between Jews and Aryans and forbade any sexual relations outside marriage.
3.3.3.4 Kristallnacht

Annotations:

  • - 9-10 November 1938. -Followed the murder of Ernst von Rath (killed by a Polish Jew). -Over 815 shops were destroyed. -191 synagogues set on fire. -76 synagogues demolished. -91 Jews killed. -Over 20,000 arrested. -Many Germans watched in HORROR and concern. -Nazi-controlled press presented it as ordinary Germans turning against the Jews. -Goring required Jews to pay the cost of damage.
3.3.4 Escalating persecution during war years to 1945
3.3.4.1 Use of ghettoes

Annotations:

  • -The first solution. -Nazis gathered all Jews into ghettos in towns. -Walls built to keep them in. -Largest ghetto in Warsaw. -Germans allowed only starvation rations in to the ghettos. -Thousands died from hunger, the intense cold or typhus. -About 55,000 died in Warsaw.
3.3.4.2 The 'Final Solution'

Annotations:

  • The code name for the MASS EXTERMINATION of ALL Jews in Europe.
3.3.4.3 Wannsee Conference

Annotations:

  • -Summer of 1941 decision made that Nazi senior officials should seek a permanent end to the Jewish problem. -Exterminate them in death camps. -Signed by Goring. -Seemed to be the idea of Himmler.
3.3.4.4 Einstazgruppen

Annotations:

  • -June 1941 - Germany invaded Russia. -Nazis organised murder squads. -Moved into Russia behind the advancing German armies. -Purpose - to round up and kill Jews. -They raided villages, rounded up Jews, made them dig their own graves and then shot them. -By 1943, the EInstatzgruppen had murdered over 2 million Russians, mainly Jews.
3.3.4.5 Death camps

Annotations:

  • -On arrival, Jews divided into two groups. -Fit ones put to work. -Others sent to gas chambers. -Those put to work not better off; worked to death in labour camps. -Older women, mothers with small children, pregnant women and children under 10 were usually taken away immediately to be executed. -Young men would lie about their age and invent a skill to be given work and stay alive.
3.3.5 Treatment of Jews

Annotations:

  • Here is a timeline of the escalating treatment of Jews in Nazi Germany.
3.3.5.1 1933

Annotations:

  • -Boycott of Jewish Shops by the SA for one-day. -Jews sacked from jobs such as civil servants and lawyers. -Jewish actors and musicians banned from public performance.
3.3.5.1.1 1934

Annotations:

  • Local councils banned Jews from public places such as parks and swimming baths.
3.3.5.1.1.1 1935

Annotations:

  • -Nuremberg Laws introduced. -Denied Jews German citizenship (lost the right to vote). -Banned from marrying Aryans. -Forbidden to join the army.
3.3.5.1.1.1.1 1936

Annotations:

  • Jews were banned from other professions such as vets, dentists, accountants, teachers and nurses.
3.3.5.1.1.1.1.1 1937

Annotations:

  • More Jewish businesses were 'Aryanized' - taken over by Aryans. 
3.3.5.1.1.1.1.1.1 1938 (from April)

Annotations:

  • -Jews had to register their property. -Jewish doctors, dentists and lawyers forbidden to treat or work for Aryans. -Passports of Jews stamped with 'J'. -Jews had to add 'Israel' or 'Sarah' to their name.
3.3.5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 1938 (November)

Annotations:

  • KRISTALLNACHT -The SA started a 3 day campaign to destroy Jewish shops, homes and synagogues.  -Jewish children were excluded from German Schools. -20,000 Jews arrested. .-91 killed. -Jews were barred from owning or managing businesses.
3.3.5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 1939

Annotations:

  • -Jews were no longer allowed to run shops or businesses.  -First ghettos were opened for Jews in German-occupied Poland.
3.3.5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 June 1941

Annotations:

  • -Germany invaded Russia. -Einsatzgruppen units followed the German army, rounding up Jews, marching them to places where they were forced to dig a huge grave, then shot.
3.3.5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Summer 1941

Annotations:

  • -Nazi leaders decide on the final solution. -This meant that all Jews were to be murdered in German-occupied countries.
3.3.5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 September 1941

Annotations:

  • All Jews in the German Reich were ordered to wear the yellow star of David.
3.3.5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 January 1942

Annotations:

  • Wannsee Conference when the Nazis agreed upon the 'Final Solution'. This meant the extermination of all Jews in Europe.
3.3.5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 1942-1945

Annotations:

  • Millions of Jews were killed in extermination camps such as Auschwitz. 
3.3.5.2 Why were they persecuted?

Annotations:

  • -Associated with communism (Karl Marx was Jewish). -Jealous of success - many Jews were professionals or owned businesses. -Used as scapegoats for Germany's problems. -Suspicious of a different religion. -Blamed for Germany's defeat in WW1 and the ToV (especially as some of the politicans involved were Jewish).