Electrolytes

Clarissa Mackay
Mind Map by Clarissa Mackay, updated more than 1 year ago
Clarissa Mackay
Created by Clarissa Mackay about 6 years ago
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Electrolytes mind map

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Electrolytes
  1. Sodium, Na+
    1. Main cation in ECF Promotes water retention Maintains blood pressure Resting membrane potential Maintains blood volume
      1. RDI = 1500 mg/day • Many people > 3000mg/day
        1. Adults need about 0.5 g of sodium each day, many people get over 7g
        2. Homeostasis
          1. Aldosterone
            1. When BP is to low - kindeys to retain sodium
            2. • Anti-Diuretic Hormone (ADH)
              1. When BP is to low and blood osmolarity is high - targets kindeys to retain water
              2. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)
                1. When BP is to HIGH -hormone is excreted by HEART - Tells kindeys to dump sodium and to urine - H20
              3. In balances
                1. Hypernatremia
                  1. Dehydration, H2O deprivation - Normally caused by to much NA+ in diet
                    1. Symptoms - Thristy, hypertension, oedema, agitation and convulsions
                  2. Hyponatremia
                    1. Cause: ↓ diet Na+ , ↑ ↑ H2O, vomiting
                      1. Symptoms: Muscular weakness, dizziness, hypotension
                2. Total body water content – thirst • Distribution within body compartments • Fluid shifts between ECF and ICF • Intracellular dehydration and oedema • Osmosis • Nerve impulse conduction and muscle contraction • Action potentials https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u6njr0nZcCU
                  1. Potassium, K+
                    1. Main cation in ICF Small amounts in ECF Maintain normal ICF volume Neuromuscular function • Resting membrane potential
                      1. RDI = 3500 mg/day
                        1. Homeostasis
                          1. • Aldosterone
                            1. • Closely linked to sodium homeostasis • Excess excreted in urine
                            2. In balances
                              1. Hyperkalemia
                                1. Causes: Renal failure, Crush injury
                                  1. Symptoms: Irritability, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, cardiac irregularities → arrest
                                2. Hypokalemia
                                  1. Causes: rolonged vomiting/diarrhoea, kidney disease, diuretics
                                    1. Sympotoms: Muscle fatigue, confusion, Cardiac irregularities → arrest
                              2. Chloride, Cl
                                1. Functions • Stomach Acid • Main Anion in ECF • Regulating pH
                                  1. Homestastis
                                    1. Linked to sodium… • Strong attraction
                                    2. Imbalances • Disturbed Acid-Base Balance • Hyperchloremia • Dietary excess? • IV saline solution • Hypochloremia • Side effect of hyponatremia • Hyperkalemia? Acidosis?
                                    3. Calcium, Ca2+
                                      1. Functions • Skeletal strength • Muscle contractions • Neurotransmitter • Blood clotting
                                        1. Homeostasis
                                          1. Hormonal Control • Parathyroid Hormone • Calcitrol/Calcitonin
                                          2. Imbalances • Hypercalcemia • Reduced membrane Na+ permeability • Depressed reflexes, muscular weakness, cardiac arrhythmias • Hypocalcemia • Abnormal nervous & muscular excitement • Weak bones
                                          3. Phosphates
                                            1. Functions • Energy • Components of phospholipids and nucleic acids • Activating enzymes & metabolic pathways • Regulating pH - Main anion in ICF
                                              1. Homeostasis
                                                1. Renal control • Parathyroid Hormone
                                                2. Imbalances • Not as critical – we can tolerate broad variations
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