UNDERSTANDING MENTAL HEALTH By Anthony Arcuri.

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UNDERSTANDING MENTAL HEALTH By Anthony Arcuri.
  1. Stigma
    1. Negative thoughts towards people with a mental illness.
      1. Is like a wall separating people with a mental illness from people without.
      2. The Brain
        1. The Brain controls everything in the body.
          1. Controls thinking,cognition,functions,memory,organization...
          2. Mental Health Language
            1. “The difference between the right word and the almost right word is the difference between lightning and the lightning bug.” —Mark Twain
              1. Mental Health Language - language used to describe mental health conditions.
              2. Mental distress, disorder,and health problems.
                1. Mental distress, disorder,and health problems, are things such as depression,bipolar mood disorder,anxiety,etc...
                2. the Brain and the Body
                  1. The biggest part of the brain is the cerebrum. The cerebrum makes up 85% of the brain's weight, and it's easy to see why. The cerebrum is the thinking part of the brain and it controls your voluntary muscles — the ones that move when you want them to. So you can't dance — or kick a soccer ball — without your cerebrum.
                    1. The cerebrum has two halves, with one on either side of the head. Scientists think that the right half helps you think about abstract things like music, colors, and shapes. The left half is said to be more analytical, helping you with math, logic, and speech. Scientists do know for sure that the right half of the cerebrum controls the left side of your body, and the left half controls the right side.
                    2. Functions of the brain.
                      1. The cerebrum or cortex is the largest part of the human brain, associated with higher brain function such as thought and action.The cerebral cortex is divided into four sections, called "lobes": the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe. Here is a visual representation of the cortex
                        1. The cerebellum, or "little brain", is similar to the cerebrum in that it has two hemispheres and has a highly folded surface or cortex. This structure is associated with regulation and coordination of movement, posture, and balance.
                          1. What do each of these lobes do? Frontal Lobe- associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, andproblem solving Parietal Lobe- associated with movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli Occipital Lobe- associated with visual processing Temporal Lobe- associated with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speech
                            1. The limbic system, often referred to as the "emotional brain", is found buried within the cerebrum. Like the cerebellum, evolutionarily the structure is rather old. This system contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus. Here is a visual representation of this system, from a midsagittal view of the human brain
                              1. Brain Stem: Underneath the limbic system is the brain stem. This structure is responsible for basic vital life functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure. Scientists say that this is the "simplest" part of human brains because animals' entire brains, such as reptiles (who appear early on the evolutionary scale) resemble our brain stem.
                                1. The brain stem is made of the midbrain, pons, and medulla.
                                  1. midbrain:a small central part of the brainstem, developing from the middle of the primitive or embryonic brain.
                                    1. pons:the part of the brainstem that links the medulla oblongata and the thalamus.
                                      1. medulla:the inner region of an organ or tissue, especially when it is distinguishable from the outer region or cortex (as in a kidney, an adrenal gland, or hair).
                                      2. Brain Signaling
                                        1. The brain contains roughly 100 billion nerve cells (or neurons), with each neuron forming connections (called synapses) with up to thousands of other neurons. The specificity of this staggering number of synaptic connections underlies all aspects of brain function and illustrates the remarkable complexity of the brain. At synapses, an electrical impulse triggers the release of a chemical messenger, called neurotransmitter, from the ending of one neuron (a nerve terminal). This neurotransmitter passively diffuses across the space to the next neuron where it binds to specialized receptor proteins. Most of these receptor sites are present on dendrites, the portion of neurons that receive incoming signals
                                          1. The binding of neurotransmitter to the receptor then triggers changes in that neuron, including changes in other specialized proteins called ion channels that lead to electrical changes in that next neuron. The neurotransmitter signal is turned off in most cases by still other types of specialized proteins, called transporters, that literally pump the neurotransmitter back into its nerve terminals for subsequent release.
                                          2. Mental Illnesses and their signs/symptoms and treatment/recovery
                                            1. In adults, young adults and adolescents: Confused thinking, prolonged depression (sadness or irritabiliy), feelings of extreme highs and lows, excessive fears, worries and anxieties, social withdrawal, dramatic changes in eating or sleeping habits, strong feelings of anger, strange thoughts (delusions), seeing or hearing things that aren't there (hallucinations), growing inability to cope with daily problems and activities, suicidal thoughts, numerous unexplained physical ailments, & substance abuse.
                                              1. In older children and pre-adolescents: substance abuse, inability to cope with problems and daily activities, changes in sleeping and/or eating habits, excessive complaints of physical ailments, changes in ability to manage responsibilities - at home and/or at school, defiance of authority, truancy, theft, and/or vandalism, intense fear, prolonged negative mood, often accompanied by poor appetite or thoughts of death, & frequent outbursts of anger.
                                                1. In younger children: changes in school performance, poor grades despite strong efforts, changes in sleeping and/or eating habits, excessive worry or anxiety (i.e. refusing to go to bed or school), hyperactivity, persistent nightmares, persistent disobedience or aggression, frequent temper tantrums.
                                                  1. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:
                                                    1. TREATMENT/RECOVERY
                                                      1. William Anthony, Director of the Boston Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation seems to have developed the cornerstone definition of mental health recovery. Anthony (1993) identifies recovery as " a deeply personal, unique process of changing one’s attitudes, values, feelings, goals, skills and/or roles. It is a way of living a satisfying, hopeful, and contributing life even with limitations caused by the illness. Recovery involves the development of new meaning and purpose in one’s life as one grows beyond the catastrophic effects of mental illness."
                                                        1. Hope is a desire accompanied by confident expectation. Having a sense of hope is the foundation for ongoing recovery from mental illness. Even the smallest belief that we can get better, as others have, can fuel the recovery process. Early in the recovery process, it is possible for a treatment provider, friend, and/or family member to carry hope for a consumer. At some point, however, consumers must develop and internalize their own sense of hope.
                                                          1. While many people are frustrated by the process of finding the right medications and the side effects of medications, most persons with a psychiatric disorder indicate that medications are critical to their success (Sullivan, 1997). For many, the goal is not to be medication-free, but to take the least amount necessary. Likewise, mental health consumers often report that mental health professionals and treatment programs are valuable to their recovery. Especially when consumers feel they are engaged in a partnership with their treatment provider and are involved in their treatment planning.
                                                            1. Empowerment is the belief that one has power and control in their life, including their illness. Empowerment also involves taking responsibility for self and advocating for self and others. As consumers grow in their recovery journeys, they gain a greater sense of empowerment in their lives.
                                                              1. Support from peers, family, friends and mental health professionals is essential to recovery from mental illness. It is especially beneficial to have multiple sources of support. This not only reduces a consumer’s sense of isolation, but also increases their activity in the community, allowing them to obtain an integral role in society.
                                                                1. In order to maximize recovery, it is important to learn as much as possible about our illnesses, medications, best treatment practices and available resources. It’s also important to learn about ourselves, including our symptoms so that we can gain better control over our illnesses. Consumers can educate themselves by speaking with health care professionals, attending workshops and support groups, reading books, articles and newsletters, browsing the internet and participating in discussion groups.
                                                                  1. While most consumers recognize the value of professional treatment, self-help is often viewed as the conduit to growth in recovery. Self-help can take many forms including learning to identify symptoms and take actions to counteract them, reading and learning about an illness and its treatment, learning and applying coping skills, attending support groups and developing a support system to rely on when necessary.
                                                                    1. A broad definition of spirituality is that it’s a partnership with one’s higher power. For many consumers spirituality provides hope, solace during their illness, peace and understanding and a source of social support.
                                                                      1. Frequently, when we meet new people, they ask "what do you do?" Whether it is fair or not, what we do shapes others' opinions of who we are. As a result, it is common for a person's identity to be significantly impacted by what they do. Likewise, what a person does influences his/her confidence, esteem, social role, values, etc. Simply put, employment/meaningful activity affords most consumers the opportunity to regain a positive identity, including a sense of purpose and value.
                                                                  2. Positive Mental Health
                                                                    1. Signs of positive mental health are: Emotional well-being 1.are you happy,2.interested in life,3.satisfied with your life?
                                                                      1. do you feel.. 4.that you had something important to contribute to society? (social contribution) 5. that you belonged to a community (like a social group, your neighbourhood, your city, your school)? (social integration) 6. that our society is becoming a better place for people like you? (social growth) 7. that people are basically good? (social acceptance) 8. that the way our societiy works makes sense to you? (social coherence) 9. you like most parts of your personality? (self-acceptance) 10. good at managing the responsibilities of your daily life? (environmental mastery) 11. that you have warm and trusting relationships with others? (positive relationship with others) 12. that you have experiences that challenge you to grow and become a better person? (personal growth) 13. confident to think or express your own ideas and opinions? (autonomy) 14. that your life has a sense of direction or meaning to it? (purpose in life) Flourishing requires a response of almost every day
                                                                      2. It all connects because it is about everything about mental disorders(example, everything you just read)
                                                                        1. HOW DOES IT ALL CONNECT?
                                                                          1. which start in the brain, and the brain controls everything in our body, and feelings... whereas mental health problems
                                                                          2. affect feelings, and how your body works. So therefore you see how everything connects! Thank You for reading
                                                                            1. P.S. Sorry I couldn't connect all the subjects, this website doesn't have the option to do that. Sorry again.
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