Trees grow tall and are generally uniform in height around 20 metres to 30 metres.
Trees grow close together
Sparse undergrowth beacuse of the low amount of sunlight received in the temperate region and low soil
nutrient level by the nature of the leaf litter (made up of tough needles which do not break down
easily to supply nutrients to the soil
Not dense as the low temperatures and precipitation cannot support dense vegetation growth
Adaptations of forest
Most coniferous trees are evergreen and do not shed leaves in autumn. They also retain their leaves so
that photosynthesis will still take place whenever the temperature is above 6°C.
Needle like leaves have small surface area that help to reduce water loss due to transpiration
Store water for use in winter when ground is frozen and little water is available
Flowers and fruits
Trees bear male or female cones, which are part of the trees’ reproductive system.
Female cones produces seed while the male cones produces pollen.
Seeds are being dispersed by animals or wind after they have been pollinated in the female cones
Bark and branches
Thick barks to protect them from the long, cold winters.
Flexible branches which slope downwards to enable snow to slide off easily, preventing accumulation of
snow whose weight may break the branches.
Shallow, spreading roots which enable them to absorb water easily from the soil surface when the
snow melts since throughout the year, precipitation is low causing there to be little water in the
Diversity of forest
Due to the low temperatures and precipitation that is characteristic of the area, only a few species of
trees grow in coniferous forests since not many plants can adapt to the weather conditions.
Species commonly found in coniferous forests are pine, spruce and fir.
Trees produce softwood which is used for making paper, pulp, matches, furniture and chemical products.
Trees tend to grow in pure stands meaning that only a single species or a mix of at most two to tree
species grow in an area of coniferous forests.
is hard to take
thick mat of
adapt to such
Where are they found
Latitudes: 60° N and 70°N of the equator
Rainfall: 300mm to 635mm (low)
Temperature: As low as -40° in winter and around 21° in
Mainly found in places that experience a cool temperate
Some locations of coniferous forests: Alaska, Northern
Canada and Russia
Source: Earth Our Home Full Goegraphy Textbook