Coniferous Forests

samuelsjh
Mind Map by samuelsjh, updated more than 1 year ago
samuelsjh
Created by samuelsjh about 6 years ago
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Coniferous Forest Mindmap

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Coniferous Forests
  1. Structure of Coniferous Forests
    1. No distinct layers
      1. Trees grow tall and are generally uniform in height around 20 metres to 30 metres.
        1. Trees grow close together
          1. Sparse undergrowth beacuse of the low amount of sunlight received in the temperate region and low soil nutrient level by the nature of the leaf litter (made up of tough needles which do not break down easily to supply nutrients to the soil
            1. Not dense as the low temperatures and precipitation cannot support dense vegetation growth
            2. Adaptations of forest
              1. Leaves
                1. Most coniferous trees are evergreen and do not shed leaves in autumn. They also retain their leaves so that photosynthesis will still take place whenever the temperature is above 6°C.
                  1. Needle like leaves have small surface area that help to reduce water loss due to transpiration
                    1. Store water for use in winter when ground is frozen and little water is available
                    2. Flowers and fruits
                      1. Trees bear male or female cones, which are part of the trees’ reproductive system. Female cones produces seed while the male cones produces pollen.
                        1. Seeds are being dispersed by animals or wind after they have been pollinated in the female cones
                        2. Bark and branches
                          1. Thick barks to protect them from the long, cold winters.
                            1. Flexible branches which slope downwards to enable snow to slide off easily, preventing accumulation of snow whose weight may break the branches.
                            2. Roots
                              1. Shallow, spreading roots which enable them to absorb water easily from the soil surface when the snow melts since throughout the year, precipitation is low causing there to be little water in the ground
                            3. Diversity of forest
                              1. Due to the low temperatures and precipitation that is characteristic of the area, only a few species of trees grow in coniferous forests since not many plants can adapt to the weather conditions.
                                1. Species commonly found in coniferous forests are pine, spruce and fir.
                                  1. Trees produce softwood which is used for making paper, pulp, matches, furniture and chemical products.
                                    1. Trees tend to grow in pure stands meaning that only a single species or a mix of at most two to tree species grow in an area of coniferous forests.
                                    2. Nutrient Cycle
                                      1. Litter: Decomposition is hard to take place. Hence, resulting in thick mat of undecayed litter
                                        1. Biomasss: Quite harsh conditions thus not many species of plants or animals can adapt to such conditions
                                          1. Soil: Thick cuticles of needle-like leaves, together, with low temperature and low bacterial activity, discourages decomposition (no humus)
                                          2. Where are they found
                                            1. Latitudes: 60° N and 70°N of the equator
                                              1. Climate: Temperate
                                                1. Rainfall: 300mm to 635mm (low)
                                                  1. Temperature: As low as -40° in winter and around 21° in summer
                                                    1. Mainly found in places that experience a cool temperate continental climate
                                                      1. Some locations of coniferous forests: Alaska, Northern Canada and Russia
                                                      2. Source: Earth Our Home Full Goegraphy Textbook Secondary 3
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