Hydrological cycle and Drainage Basin System

hanifah.S
Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

Cambridge IGCSE Geography Mind Map on Hydrological cycle and Drainage Basin System, created by hanifah.S on 10/29/2013.

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hanifah.S
Created by hanifah.S almost 6 years ago
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Hydrological cycle and Drainage Basin System
1 The drainage basin hydrological system is a summary of a single river basins characteristics: INPUTS- Precipitation, solar energy for evaporation. OUTPUTS- Evaporation, run-off.
2 WHAT IS A SYSTEM?
2.1 A system is an orderly process which remains constant and includes: stores, flows and processes.Systems can be categorized as either open, closed or isolated. E.G. Hydrological system is closed, while the drainage basin system is open.
2.2 TRANSFERS/FLOWS
2.2.1 VERTICAL FLOWS - Natural flows due to gravity. It is only when impeded (stopped), that horizontal flow will take place.
2.3 SPEED OF FLOWS
2.3.1 INFILTRATION CAPACITY RATE- max. rate which water passes through soil (mm/hr). PERCOLATION- water movement slows as it reaches more compact underlying rock/soil layers.
2.4 HORiZONTAL FLOWS
2.4.1 SURFACE RUN-OFF/OVERLAND FLOW: fastest flow. THROUGH-FLOW- lateral movement of water through upper soil layers. GROUNDWATER FLOW/BASE FLOW- slow lateral movement of water from underlying bedrock/ soil layers beneath the water table.
2.5 STORES
2.5.1 FIELD CAPACITY- The level to which soil moisture stores can fill up before it is drained, due to gravity (how much water the soil can hold before saturation.

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