Mind Map by sal0013, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by sal0013 over 6 years ago


Mind Map on Genetics, created by sal0013 on 10/30/2013.

Resource summary

1 Heredirty
1.1 The set of characteristics that you inherit from your parents e.g. hair colour
2 The study of hereditry
3 True-breeding
3.1 plants are those that constantly produce offspring the same as the parents for a particular trait
4 Mendel
4.1 The Father of Genetics
4.2 Dominant Trait
4.2.1 the trait that appeared in the F1 generation
4.2.2 Recessive Trait trait that was masked in F1 and appeared in F2 generation
4.3 Gamates
4.3.1 Reproductive cells e.g ova in females, sperm in males
4.3.2 Only have half the NUMBER of chromosomes
4.3.3 Also called haploid cells
5 Genes
5.1 a hereditry unit that controls a particular characteristic
5.2 made up of Deoxyribonuclei Acid (DNA)
6 Chromosomes
6.1 genes are found on them
6.2 found in the nucleus of body cells
6.3 long and coiled thread like structure made of DNA and protein
6.4 many thousand genes along its length
7 Diploid Cells
7.1 all cells in your body
7.2 the chromosomes exist in pairs based on size and shape
7.3 contain the full set of chromosomes (46)
8 Homologous pair
8.1 one pair from your mum one from your dad
8.2 homo = same
9 Environment
9.1 the set of factors that have acted on you throughout your entire life
10 Zygote
10.1 a new cell formed when a egg and sperm cell meet
10.2 have the full number of chromosomes as half came from the father and half came from the mother
11 Males
11.1 XY
11.2 half the sperm carry X and the other carry Y
12 Females
12.1 XX
13 Mitosis
13.1 when each cells divides and the resulting daughter cell each recieves a copy of the parent cells chromosomes
13.2 each daughter cell is an exact copy of the parent cell
13.3 e.g. hair growing, fingernails growing
14 Meiosis
14.1 cells seperate randomly to produce different types of gamates
14.2 cell division to produce gamates with half the number of the parent cell
15 Alleles
15.1 different forms of the same gene
15.2 Dominant Allele
15.2.1 will always be expressed by showing its physical appearance and by using a capital letter
15.2.2 you only need one dominant allele to show the appearnace
15.2.3 we use a capital letter
15.2.4 e.g.Green pea ( GG or Gg)
15.3 Recessive Allele
15.3.1 will always be masked or hidden by the dominant allele
15.3.2 we use a lower case letter
15.3.3 if a recessive trait shows up then there will be 2 recessive alleles present
15.3.4 e.g. Yellow pea (gg)
16 Genotype
16.1 the different combinations of the parents genes
17 Phenotype
17.1 The physical appearance produced by a genotype
17.1.1 e.g. the physical characteristic is green (phenotype) thus the possible genotype is GG or Gg
18 Punnet Squares
18.1 can be used to predict the results of reproduction (crossing) between different organisms
19 Co-Dominance
19.1 the phenotype of the heterozygous organism is a COMBINATION of the phenotypes of the heterozygous organisms
20 Homozygous
20.1 both genes or alleles are the SAME
20.2 homo = same
21 Heterozygous
21.1 both genes or alleles are DIFFERENT
21.1.1 hetero = different
22 Incomplete Dominance
22.1 a cross between organisms with two different phenotypes produce offspring with a third phenotype that is a BLENDING of the parental traitrs
23 Blood type
23.1 controlled by genes
23.2 A type
23.2.1 AA or AO
23.3 B type
23.3.1 BB or BO
23.4 AB type
23.4.1 AB co dominance
23.5 O type
23.5.1 OO recessive
24 Pedigrees / Family Trees
24.1 show the phenotypes of related individuals over a number of generations
24.1.1 Female is a circle Male is a square
25 Sex-linked inheritance
25.1 only occurs on the sex chromosomes
25.1.2 carrier is not counted as healthy e.g. is a female has a gene for Haemophilia and a gene for a normal gene on the other she will have no blood issue but will be able to pass it onto offspring
26 DNA
26.1 a long molecule with two strands twisted together to make a double helix
26.1.1 the ladder uprights have a chain of alternating sugar and phosphate units The ladder rungs have pairs of special molecules called nitrogen bases there are 4 different nitrogen bases A = adenine T = thymine C = cytosine G = guanine C and G can ONLY pair with each other A and T can ONLY pair with each other
26.2 when a piece of DNA is copied EXACTLY it is called replication
26.2.1 the strands first unzip an exact copy is then made by matching each base with its complementary base once a section is copied, one old and one new strand are zipped together to produce a duplicate DNA
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