Chronic adaptations

Taylor Lilley
Mind Map by Taylor Lilley, updated more than 1 year ago
Taylor Lilley
Created by Taylor Lilley over 6 years ago
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Description

Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) High School Mind Map on Chronic adaptations, created by Taylor Lilley on 08/08/2015.

Resource summary

Chronic adaptations
  1. Aerobic
    1. Heart
      1. Hypertrophy of myocardium (heart)
        1. ^ stroke volume
          1. Resting and sub-max HR decrease
            1. Bradycardia; when HR < 60
          2. Q (Cardiac output) remains fairly stable at max and sub-max
            1. Q can increase at maximal exercise though
          3. Blood vessels
            1. ^ in capillarisation of the myocardium and skeletal muscles
              1. More capillaries
                1. Slow twitch muscles have greatest increase
                  1. +ve relationship between # of (mitochondria and capillaries)/fibre
                    1. +ve relationship between # of capillaries/fibre and muscle fibre diameter
                    2. Muscles more efficient at extracting O2
                      1. Less blood sent to active muscles at except max intensity
                        1. More blood sent to skin
                          1. Better thermoregulation
                          2. More blood is sent to muscles with higher % of type 1 fibres
                        2. aVO2-Diff ^
                        3. Blood
                          1. ^ total blood volume
                            1. ^ plasma (within days)
                              1. Factor in thermoregulation ^
                                1. Factor in SV ^
                                2. ^ in RBC count (haematocrit)
                                3. Increase in haemoglobin (oxygen carrier)
                                  1. ^ LIP
                                    1. Increased lack of lactate removal
                                      1. Decreased rate of lactate production
                                        1. Basically delays fatigue
                                    2. Respiratory adaptions
                                      1. ^ lung volumes (except tidal volumes
                                        1. ^ area of alveolar-capillary membrane
                                          1. ^ pulmonary diffusion
                                          2. ^ efficiency
                                            1. Ventilation decreases above rest
                                          3. Muscular adaptions
                                            1. Increase in O2 uptake
                                              1. Little to no change in strength or power
                                                1. Aerobic system contributes more ATP
                                                  1. Muscle structure
                                                    1. Type 1 (slow)
                                                      1. ^ oxidative capacity
                                                        1. Fibres increase in size
                                                        2. Type 2 (fast)
                                                          1. Take on characteristics of type 1
                                                            1. Do not become type 1
                                                        3. a-VO2-diff gets more efficient
                                                          1. Major contributor to VO2max ^
                                                          2. ^ Myoglobin
                                                            1. Compound that transports O2 to mitochondria
                                                              1. Haemoglobin but inside the muscle
                                                                1. Ability to transport increases
                                                              2. Mitochondria
                                                                1. Site of aerobic respiration
                                                                  1. Resynthesises ATP
                                                                  2. ^ Oxidative enzymes
                                                                    1. Related to ^ %VO2max before LIP
                                                                    2. ^ size and number
                                                                      1. ^ aerobic ATP resynthesis
                                                                      2. Ability to oxidise fats ^
                                                                        1. Specifically FFA
                                                                          1. Glycogen sparing ^
                                                                          2. Ability to aerobically utilise glycogen ^
                                                                            1. Glycolysis
                                                                    3. Anaerobic
                                                                      1. Heart
                                                                        1. Thickening of LV wall
                                                                          1. ^ contraction power
                                                                            1. NO change in SV
                                                                          2. Muscular Adaptations
                                                                            1. ^ Substrate storage
                                                                              1. ATP
                                                                                1. Glycogen
                                                                                  1. PC
                                                                                  2. ^glycolytic capacity and enzyme activity

                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                    • Ability to respire without oxygen during anaerobic metabolism
                                                                                    1. Changes occur in all fibres but primarily type 2
                                                                                    2. Muscular reactions to resistance training
                                                                                      1. Neural
                                                                                        1. Improved neuromuscular pathways
                                                                                          1. More efficient and forceful contractions
                                                                                          2. ^ motor unit recruitment
                                                                                            1. ^ motor unit firing frequency
                                                                                              1. ^ recruitment of fast twitch fibres
                                                                                                1. ^ motor unit co-ordination
                                                                                                  1. ^ co-contraction (agonist/antagonist)
                                                                                                    1. Increased activation of stabilising muscles
                                                                                                      1. Tend to occur within first few weeks of training
                                                                                                      2. Hypertrophy
                                                                                                        1. ^ # and size of myofibrils
                                                                                                          1. Muscles built with chains of these
                                                                                                            1. ^ contractile proteins
                                                                                                              1. Actin and myosin
                                                                                                              2. No increase in # of muscle fibres, only size
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