psycholgoy as level topic 2 - memory

Talya Hambling
Flashcards by Talya Hambling, updated more than 1 year ago
Talya Hambling
Created by Talya Hambling over 5 years ago
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psychology as level topic 2 - memory

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Question Answer
what is coding converting information into a format the brain can understand
describe coding, and its proof words that are acoustically similar aren't remembered well in STM, and semantically similar aren't remembered in LTM. This shows that information coded semantically in LTM and acoustically in STM.
what is capacity how much information can be stored un the STM at any given time
describe capacity Digit span - given 4 digits to remember, increased by 1 digit until one of them is forgotten. Mean = 9.3 for numbers and 7.3 for letters. Magic 7 = putting digits/letters into small units to make it easier to remember. Mean = 7 [+-2]
what is duration length of time that information can be held in memory
how was duration investigated STM = 3 nonsense syllables, count back in 3s from 100 for different amount of time. after 18 seconds, all was forgotten. LTM = took school yearbook. photo recognition after 15 years was 90%, after 48 was 70%. Free recall after 15 years was 60%, then after 48 was 30%.
evaluate ALL the above studies and proofs low ecological validity digits may have personal meaning many confounding variables word lists etc. are artificial stimuli BUT they're repeatable/testable
what are the 3 steps of the multi store model sensory register, STM, LTM
describe the sensory register stimulus passes through. registered iconic (image) and echoic (sound) at same time. duration is 1/2 second. will only continue through MSM if attention paid.
describe the STM of the MSM Codes acoustically. Duration is 30 seconds without rehearsal. Capacity if 7 [+-2]. Maintenance rehearsal holds it, prolonged rehearsal moves it onto LTM.
describe LTM of MSM Potentially permanent. Capacity is unlimited. Coded semantically. Can only be retrieved through STM. Hippocampus is crucial for memory, as we see from HM who has it removed due to epilepsy.
evaluate the multi store model Supported by studies. (HM and KF) Evidence from brain damage shows STM has sub units (amnesia patients). Rehearsal not necessary to put into LTM. Lacks ecological validity. (nonsense trigrams) LTM consist of many more units.
what are the 3 types of LTM episodic, semantic, procedural
describe episodic memory Store for personal events. They are time stamped. Can only recall with conscious effort.
describe semantic memory Stores out knowledge of the world. Not time stamped. More like facts (what are animals, how does an apple taste etc...).
describe procedural memory Stores memory of how to do actions/skills. Don't need effort to recall. Examples are - riding a bike/brushing teeth
evaluate the LTM HM and Clive wearing both had procedural and episodic, bot semantic. proof for different units. Brain scans show episodic/semantic in prefrontal cortex. Helps older people improve episodic memory. (applicable) Lack of control in lab studies
what is the working memory model representation of STM, including many sub-units. More detailed.
what units does the WMM consist of central executive, phonological loop, visuo-spatial sketchpad, episodic buffer.
describe the central executive monitors incoming data, allocates appropriate slave system.
describe the phonological loop phonological store = stores auditory information heard articulatory process = rehearses them in a loop for 2 seconds [It preserves the order by which we hear the information]
describe the visuo-spatial sketchpad visual cache = stores visual data inner scribe = records arrangement of objects in visual field [limited capacity]
describe the episodic buffer added in 2010. memory store for CE, records all events, limited to 4 chunks
evaluate the WMM KF couldn't recall verbal, but could visual - existence of different units. Harder to do 2 tasks at same time if require same store (2 visual tasks e.g). CE needs more detail than 'attention'. Brain scans show CE in prefrontal cortex.
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