22.3% unemployed ⠀ Primary industry, e.g.
fishing, mining ⠀ Low income ⠀ 55.2%
under poverty ⠀ Estimated inflation rate
of 9.1% in 2015 compared to 2014
Corrupt government ⠀ Earthquake prone- can limit
future growth by destroying buildings/crops. Thus country
diverts to recover from these events (like the recent
Gorkha Earthquake) ⠀ Landlocked- difficult to trade
goods as there is no easy access to ship ports and
difficult for new technology to reach because fibre optic
cables are places under the sea.
35.1% unemployed ⠀ Male dominated society ⠀
Corruption ⠀ Inequality of wealth
39% of adult population are literate ⠀
High risk of fatal disease ⠀ Shortage of
medical facilities and staff
GNP/capita: $240 ⠀ 5 doctors/100,000
people ⠀ Adult literacy rate: 22% (one of
the lowest in the world) ⠀ Life
expectancy: age 44 ⠀ Has 1 university only
Advanced healthcare- has one of the best
healthcare systems in the world ⠀ One of the
highest life expectancy rates (82 years) ⠀ World's
highest amount of tourist arrivals
Has good accessibility with trade, as the
country has over 500 ports ⠀ Top 5 in worlds
highest literacy rate ⠀ Good government
spending priorities- not corrupt ⠀ Manufactures
mass market goods with a huge market
Natural resources found- like large oil deposits that make up 10th of the world's oil reserve
⠀Prime location for international trade ⠀ Historyically productive relationship with UK that
grants them access to exclusive western investments and partnerships
Has world class school systems with some of the top
secondary schools in the world ⠀ One of the highest life
expectancy rates (83 years) ⠀ Economically advanced
manufacturing sector ⠀ Situated at a strategic location
for natural harbour and trade
Highest GDP/year in the world ($ 60.13 billion) ⠀
literacy rate is 100% ⠀ Large amount of private
industries, mostly in banking, communications and
transportation ⠀ Low unemployment rate of 5.5
North South Divide
Definition: World Trade is the exchange of goods and services between
one country and another, around the world.
Imports: Goods that are brought into a country
Exports: Goods that are sold to another country
MEDCs usually export valuable manufactured goods such as electronics and cars. They import
cheaper primary products like tea and coffee. For LEDCs, they do the opposite- import valuable
manufactured goods and export primary products.
Interdependence: LEDCs are dependent on MEDCs for manufactured goods and aid, as well as
income for tourism. MEDCs are dependent on LEDCs for primary products such as steel or iron
and require them to provide good hospitality for some holiday destinations.
The price of primary products fluctuates on the world market which means that workers
and producers in LEDCs lose out when the price drops. LEDCs have little purchasing
power, making it difficult for them to pay off their debts and stay away from poverty. The
price of manufactured goods is steadier which means that MEDCs always benefit.
Trade around the world can sometimes be unfair. Workers in primary industries often lose out by
receiving low wages and having poor standards of living. They can't afford for their children's education,
sometimes resulting on child workers. Therefore, fair trade products were introduced to make LEDCs
make more money. This means that the producer receives a guaranteed and fair price for their product
(regardless of the price on the world market). Thus, their and their family's quality of life will improve.
Definition: Population growth is the increase in the number of people that live in a
country, state, city or any other wide area.
Causes: Population numbers that change over time are influenced
by births, deaths and migration in and out of the area. Global
population levels are now rising- having grown slowly for most of
The statistics below show the highest and lowest population growth rate in 2014. It is
calculated by the population growth compared to its population from last year.
Greatest population growth: Lebanon (up 9.37%) Least population growth: Syria
Population will decline if
death rate is greater than
birth rate. Population will
increase if death rate is less
than birth rate.
To determine whether there has been population growth, the following formula is used: (birth rate +
immigration) - (death rate + emigration). Businesses/governmental bodies use this information to
make estimations about investing in certain communities, accordingly. The rate of any population
increase- or possibly decrease- is given as a percentage, calculated by dividing the increase by
MEDCs generally have low population growth rates, with low death rates and low
birth rates. LEDCs are most likely have high population growth rates with a younger
and faster growing population than MEDCs. Both birth rates and death rates in LEDCs
tend to be high.
LEDC: Less Economically Developed Country
MEDC: More Economically Developed Country
GDP: Gross National Product is the total value of goods and
services produced by a country
Inflation: How much the prices of goods, wages and services increase each year. High
inflation can be bad, suggesting that the government lacks control over the economy
Definition: Poverty is the lack of basic human needs- such as clean water, nutrition
health care, education, clothing and shelter due to the inability to afford them. Most
people who are undergoing poverty earn very small incomes; eg £1 a day or less.
Poverty is a broad concept, which includes social, economic, and political elements.
Most of the time, poverty is closely related to inequality.
Causes: The causes of poverty include changing trends in a country’s economy,
corruption, national debt, overpopulation, epidemic diseases (such as AIDS and
malaria) and environmental problems (such as lack of rainfall or vulnerability to
natural disasters). One of the main causes of poverty is a lack of money.
Statistics: Around 21,000 people die every day around the world. Just under 7.6 million children
die every year ⠀ Almost half the world — over 3 billion people — live on less than £2 a day ⠀ The
GDP of the 41 Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (567 million people) is less than the wealth of the
world’s 7 richest people combined
Definition: A condition of
people who frequently
experience the physical
sensation of desiring to eat
Malnutrition: a condition
caused by improper diet or
Famine: extreme scarcity of food in a
country or wide geographical area.
Starvation: a state of
exhaustion of the body caused by
lack of food. Starvation can lead to
Statistics: 925 million people do not have enough to eat, yet 1.2 billion suffer
from obesity ⠀ 1 in 8 people go hungry to bed ⠀ More that 50% of the world's
underweight children are located in South Asia ⠀ Overall, £20 billion worth of food
is thrown away, every year
Why we still have hunger in the world (causes of hunger): Natural disasters, climate/weather,
fluctuating market prices, conflicts, poverty, and poor agricultural systems. Inequality of wealth
around the world is very high, too. It costs on average 25 cents a day to feed a hungry child. However,
some people don't have enough money to spend 25 cents a day but some people have more than