After affected areas are declared as "emergency
zones', a specialised authority is assigned to
provide immediate aid to people and restore
emergency services to the affected areas.
Basic humanitarian needs of the
affected people are taken care of.
They are provided with food, water
In turkey, the Crisis Management Center led by the
Ministry of Interior mobilised and coordinated relief
effectively withing the first few hours of the earthquake in
Afyon, Turkey, in 2002.
Some countries are not experienced in
handling the aftermath of an earthquake.
For example, the earthquake in Haiti in 2010 was its first
major one since 1860. The emergency relief lacked
coordination and proper supervision. This made it difficult
to provide aid to the affected population.
Searching for and rescuing
People trapped under collapsed buildings
are quickly located and freed.
Some survivors are found after being
trapped for a couple of weeks without
For example, after the earthquake in
Tohoku, Japan, in 2011, sniffer dogs and
heat sensors were deployed and
successfully rescued many who were
Rescue workers only have a limited
time of 72 hours, or three days, to find
trapped survivors. Without food and
water, trapped people are unlikely to
survive after three days.
For example, rescue workers had a limited
time of three days to rapidly search through
two towns after search through two towns
after the earthquake in Tohoku in 2011.
Providing medical aid, food and
The injured are treated and clean drinking water is
provided to survivors to prevent dehydration and the
spread of diseases.
The provision of immediate aid helps
survivors continue with their lives.
For example, after the earthquake in Afyon in 2002,
the Turkish Red Crescent Society immediately
responded by delivering 20,000 tents, 50,000
blankets and 3,000 heaters to the region.
Medical supplies, food and water may not
be sufficient and this may cause social
For example. after the earthquake in Haiti in
2010, looting and fighting broke out as people
fought for food and medical supplies.
Setting up emergency shelters.
Tent cities are set up as temporary
housing for those who have lost their
homes in the earthquake.
Temporary shelter provide a
place for survivors to carry
on with their lives.
For example, tents accommodated
thousands of homeless people after the
major earthquake in Afyon, Turkey,, in 2002.
They also helped re-establish a sense of
community among surviviors.
The living conditions in tent cities
may be poor and lead to people
For example, the outbreak of the
water-borne disease, cholera, killed
almost 4,000 people in the tent cities
Calling for humanitarian aid.
Foreign and local Governments may
offer money, medical or food aid to an
Affected areas can be rebuilt with
the aid provided.
For example, two months after the earthquake in Haiti in
2010 the earthquake in Haiti in 2010, governments around
the world donated US$2.5 billion and pledged another US$1.3
Aid may be delivered later than hoped for or
may not always be delivered. Problems such
as the looting of trucks may also arise while
aid is being delivered.
For example, after the earthquake in Turkey in 2011, trucks
delivering aid were looted before they reached the disaster