Globalization and Diversity

Ale JC
Mind Map by Ale JC, updated more than 1 year ago
Ale JC
Created by Ale JC over 4 years ago
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Excercise 1-

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Globalization and Diversity
1 Geopolitical framework
1.1 Globalization involves positive and negative transformation, because of this it is a controversial and contentious topic.
1.2 Economic globalization benefits everyone as regional activities become more effecient in the face of global competition on the other hand opponents argue this with evidence that only the rich are benefiting and the poorer countries are actually even farther behind
1.3 Population and settlement issues revolve around four of these: rapid population growth, family planning/ abstinence, migration to new centers of economic activity and rapid urbanization
1.4 Tension between forces of cultural homogenization and the countercurrents of local cultural and ethnic identity
2 World Regional Geography
2.1 Geography: A fundamental science (describing the earth)
2.1.1 Physical Geography
2.1.1.1 investigates ecological diversity like soil, landforms, etc
2.1.2 Regional Geography
2.1.2.1 Analyzes a specific topic
2.1.3 Human Geography
2.1.3.1 in charge of analyzing social, cultural and economic systems
2.1.4 Areal Differentiation and Integration
2.1.4.1 Areal Differentiation
2.1.4.1.1 describes and explains the differences that distinguish one place from other
2.1.4.2 Areal Integration
2.1.4.2.1 the study of how places relate with each other
2.1.4.3 Global to Local
2.1.4.3.1 it is a systematic inquiry sense of scale
2.1.5 Regions: Formal, Functional, and Vernacular
2.1.5.1 Regions:how geographers compress into units of spatial similarity
2.1.5.1.1 Formal Regions
2.1.5.1.1.1 defined by some aspect of physical form
2.1.5.1.2 Functional Region
2.1.5.1.2.1 where a certain activity takes place
2.1.5.1.3 Vernacular Regions
2.1.5.1.3.1 defined solely in people’s minds as spatial stereotypes that have no visible boundaries in a physical landscape
2.1.6 The Cultural Landscape: Space into Place
2.1.6.1 Cultural landscape : the visible material of human settlement in the past or present. It is also known as the tangible expression of the human environment.
2.1.6.1.1 It is the division of cultural values, symbols and attitudes.
2.2 The geographer’s toolbox: Location, maps, remote sensing and GIs
2.2.1 Geographers use different tools to analyze and examine the world
2.2.1.1 Latitude and Longitude
2.2.1.1.1 Relative Location
2.2.1.1.1.1 specific places in relation to other landscape features
2.2.1.1.2 Absolute Location
2.2.1.1.2.1 gives the coordinates of an specific place with the numerical address based on the longitude and latitude
2.2.1.1.2.1.1 Parallels → run from east to west around the world (lines of latitude)
2.2.1.1.2.1.2 Medians → lines from longitude that run from north to south
2.2.1.1.2.1.3 Prime meridian →located at 0 degrees longitude in Greenwich
2.2.1.1.2.1.4 The equator divides the world into hemispheres that meet at 180 degrees longitude in the Pacific Ocean.
2.2.1.1.3 GPS
2.2.1.1.3.1 Global Positioning systems use time signals sent from an specific location to a satellite and back to the person with the exact coordinates.
2.2.1.2 Map Projections
2.2.1.2.1 They are defined as different ways maps are projected in a flat service
2.2.1.3 Map Scale
2.2.1.3.1 It is the scale in a mathematical relation between a place and the surface mapped
2.2.1.3.1.1 Representative Fraction→ the scale between the area being mapped and the map.
2.2.1.3.1.2 Graphic Scale → visually characterize in a horizontal bar distance units
2.2.1.4 Map Patterns and Map Legends
2.2.1.4.1 Simple reference map → that show specific characteristic
2.2.1.4.2 Thematic map → that demonstrate more elaborated things
2.2.1.4.3 Map Legend → gives details by explain the different elements of the map
2.2.1.4.4 Chormopleth maps → maps with different levels of intensity data
2.2.1.5 Aerial Photos and Remote Sensing
2.2.1.5.1 Photos taken by a satellite or an aircraft.
2.2.1.5.1.1 This technology is really helpful because it has many scientific applications.
2.2.1.6 Geographic Information Systems
2.2.1.6.1 All the data sources computerized such as remote sensing, aerial photos, maps, etc.
2.2.1.6.1.1 The resultant databases are used to analyze a wide range of resource problems.
3 Global climates and human impacts
3.1 Climate controls
3.1.1 Factors affecting climate controls
3.1.1.1 Solar energy
3.1.1.1.1 Earth surface and the atmosphere are heated by the energy of the Sun
3.1.1.2 Latitude
3.1.1.2.1 The Sun strikes the Earth only in one angle , which causes the equator and its surroundings to be warmer than other places
3.1.1.3 Interactions between land and water
3.1.1.3.1 The arrangements of land and water differ in their capacity to absorb and reradiate insolation
3.1.1.4 Global pressure systems
3.1.1.4.1 High and low pressure cells are produced because of the uneven heating of Earth due to the latitude differences
3.1.1.5 Global wind patterns
3.1.1.5.1 High and low pressure systems produce global wind patterns at local, regional and global scales
3.1.1.6 Topography
3.1.1.6.1 At sea level, air temperatures are warmer because the lower atmosphere is heated by solar energy
3.2 Global climate change
3.2.1 The world’s climate is causing a lot of repercussions for all living organisms due to human activities like industrialization
3.2.2 Causes of global warming
3.2.2.1 Global industrialization and the consumption of coal and petroleum
3.2.2.2 Animal and plant extinctions
3.2.2.3 Wildfires
3.2.2.4 Heatwaves
3.2.3 The International debate on limiting emissions
3.2.3.1 The carbon inequity was the position taken by some developing countries that talked about how the industrial countries were causing the global warming because of big amount of fossil fuels
3.2.3.2 174 countries signed an agreement in which they had to limit their GHG emissions. Despite of this, none of the countries reached the emission reduction targets, so a second agreement was made
3.2.3.2.1 The countries that didn’t reached the emission reductions targets would be penalized
3.3 Water: A scarce world resource
3.3.1 Wet or dry conditions are caused because of this water problems that are produced by varied global climates
3.3.1.1 The water stress data that is a concept to visualize where do water problems exist or to predict where future problems will occur
3.3.1.2 Water scarcity, sanitation and access
3.3.1.2.1 Water scarcity is becoming a bigger problem because in some areas where water shortages are common, the population is increasing even more causing the problems to increase as well
3.3.1.2.2 Water access is another big problem because lots of people have to walk a long path and wait for hours in a line in order to get some water for their families
3.3.1.2.3 There are people that do not have access to clean water and therefore have to use contaminated water causing lots of illnesses and deaths
4 Population and Settlement
4.1 Increase population
4.1.1 From In-migration
4.1.1.1 Mostly economic
4.1.2 Population planning
4.2 Vocabulary
4.2.1 RNI
4.2.1.1 Rate of Natural Increase
4.2.2 TRF
4.2.2.1 Total Fertility Rate
4.2.3 Population pyramid
4.2.3.1 Graphical indicator of a population's age and gender.
4.2.4 Life expectancy
4.2.5 NMR
4.2.5.1 Net Migration Rates
4.3 Democratic transition
4.3.1 Stage 1. Preindustrial
4.3.2 Stage 2. Transitional
4.3.3 Stage 3. Transitional
4.3.4 Stage 4. Industrial
4.3.5 Stage 5. Post-Industrial
4.4 Population Density
4.4.1 Average number of people per area.
4.5 Globalizing world
4.5.1 Economic, political & cultural changes.
5 Cultural Coherence and Diversity
5.1 Cultural influences, traditions & changes.
5.2 Culture in a globalizing world.
5.2.1 Culture is always changing.
5.2.2 Conservative vs. Changes
5.2.3 When cultures collide
5.2.3.1 Cultural Imperialism
5.2.3.1.1 One cultural system at the expense of another.
5.2.3.2 Cultural nationalism
5.2.3.2.1 Protecting cultural system nationally.
5.2.3.3 Cultural hybrids
5.2.3.3.1 Blending cultures to form a new one.
5.3 Gender and globalization.
5.3.1 Define behavior for each gender.
5.3.2 Gender equiality by globalization.
5.4 Language and culture in globalization.
5.4.1 Language defines cultural groups.
5.4.2 National identity
5.5 World religion
5.5.1 Universaling religions
5.5.1.1 Seek new converts
5.5.2 Ethnic religions
5.5.2.1 Do not seek new converts
5.5.3 Secularism: nonreligious
5.5.4 Examples: Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism.
6 Economic and Social Development pages
6.1 Small groups are setting themselves apart from larger national cultures with renewed interests
6.2 As the world becomes connected through international economic and political alliances the nation's governments loose power
6.3 Doors open for separatist groups seeking autonomy and independence
6.4 Terrorist groups wage their battle against Western interests and ways of life
6.5 Increasing disparity between rich and poor, between countries and regions
6.6 Countries that already have wealth are getting richer through globalization
6.7 Inequalities in social development, education and working conditions accompany these disparities in wealth
7 Globalization
7.1 Affects the geography of people and places throughout the world
7.1.1 The handmaiden of globalization is diversity
7.2 World regional geography is central to this task because of its integration of environmental, cultural, political, adn economic themes and topics.
7.2.1 Most scholars agree that the major component of globalization is the economic reorganization of the world.
7.3 the american journalist and author Thomas Friedman, one of the most influential advocates of economic globalization, argues that the world has not only shrunk, but also become economically" flat" so that financial capital, goods, and services can flow freely from place to place.
7.4 the cultivation, processing, and transhipment of coca, opium, and marijuana are global issues.
7.5 Globalization also has important geopolitical components, to many an essential dimension of globalization is that it is not restricted by territorial or national boundaries.
7.5.1 in some world regions a weakening of traditional states power has resulted in stronger local and separatist movements
8 Rowntree, L (2014) Globalization and Diversity Geography of a Changing World. Pearson: United States
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