Science Summer Homework

Sarah Hill
Mind Map by Sarah Hill, updated more than 1 year ago
Sarah Hill
Created by Sarah Hill about 6 years ago


My science homewok

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Science Summer Homework
  1. By Sarah Hill
    1. Biology
      1. Cells
        1. Specialised Cells
          1. Sperm Cells
            1. Muscle Cells
              1. Nerve Cells
              2. Diffusion
                1. Diffusion occurs when particles spread. They move from an area of hight concentration to an area of low concentration.
                2. Human Body
                  1. Digestive System
                    1. Digestion is the breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins and fats into small soluble substances to be absorbed into the blood. Amylase, proteases and lipases are enzymes that are important in digestion.
                    2. Size
                      1. Organelle [smallest], cell, tissue, organ, organ system [largest]
                    3. Polytunnels
                      1. Lactic Acid
                        1. During anaerobic respiration, glucose is not completely broken down resulting in a build up of lactic acid in the muscle. The lactic acid needs to be oxidised to carbon dioxide and water later. This causes an oxygen debt that need to be 'repaid' after the exercise stops. This is why we keep on breathing deeply for a few minutes after we have finished exercising.
                      2. Chemistry
                        1. Properties of Metals
                          1. They are good conductors of heat and electricity
                            1. they can be bent or hammered into shape easily
                            2. Bonding
                              1. Metallic Bonding
                                1. Metals form giant structures in which electrons in the outer shell of the metal atoms are free to move. The metallic bond is the force of attraction between these free electrons and the metal ions. Metallic bonds are strong, so metals can maintain a regular structure and usually have high melting and boiling points.
                                  1. Metal - metal
                                  2. Covalent Bonding
                                    1. A covalent bond forms when two non-metal atoms share a pair of electrons. The electrons involved are in the outer shells of the atoms. An atom that shares one or more of its electrons will complete its outer shell. Covalent bonds are strong - a lot of energy is need to break them. Substances with covalent bonds often form molecules with low melting and boiling points, such as hydrogen and water.
                                      1. Non metal - non metal
                                      2. Ionic Bonding
                                        1. Metal - non metal
                                          1. When metals react with non-metals, electrons are transferred form the metal atoms to the non-metal atoms, forming ions. The result is a compound called a ionic compound. In all reactions, the metal atoms gives electrons to the non-metal atoms. The metal atoms become positive ions and the non-metals become negative ions. there is a strong electrostatic force of attraction between these oppositely charged ions - this is called an ionic bond.
                                        2. Chemical Reactions
                                          1. Polymers
                                            1. Strength of Polymers
                                              1. Low density poly(ethene) [weakest], high density poly(ethene), thermosetting polymers [strongest]
                                              2. Thermosetting polymers have strong covalent bonds between their polymer chains which makes them ideal for use in plug sockets
                                              3. Atoms
                                              4. Physics
                                                1. Stopping Distance
                                                  1. Stopping distance = thinking distance + braking distance
                                                  2. Forces
                                                    1. A force causes an object to undergo a specific change. Unbalanced forces cause a change in speed, shape or direction. Gravitational forces act between masses. Friction opposes motion.
                                                    2. Distance-Time Graphs
                                                      1. Electricity
                                                        1. Energy =joule (J)
                                                          1. Power = watt (W)
                                                            1. Frequency = hertz (Hz)
                                                            2. Radiation
                                                              1. Alpha Radiation
                                                                1. Alpha radiation consists of alpha particles. An alpha particle is identical to the nucleus of a helium atom, which comprises two protons and two neutrons.
                                                                2. Beta Radiation
                                                                  1. Beat radiation consists of high energy electron emitted from the nucleus.
                                                                  2. Gamma Radiation
                                                                    1. Gamma radiation is very short wavelengths, high frequency electromagnetic radiation.
                                                                  3. Life Cycle of a Star
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