Participate in Safe Work Practices

Vi Vu
Mind Map by Vi Vu, updated more than 1 year ago
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Participate in Safe Work Practices - Pereira Booklets
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Participate in Safe Work Practices
1 Intro to Health, Safety and Security
1.1 Costs of workplace injury
1.1.1 Human Costs

Annotations:

  • Def: are those that the injured worker experiences as a result of an accident. Eg:  - Lower quality of life - The injury may be permanent and the injured person may require assistant - pain and suffering (psychological trauma) - frustration and stress - may need to be placed on light duties
1.1.2 Social cost

Annotations:

  • Def: are those associated with the injuries impact on family, friends and colleagues.    Eg:  - Stress, frustration, sadness and strain - Extra burden on the family (require a carer) - experience a lower quality of life
1.1.3 Organisational Cost

Annotations:

  • Def: are those that impact upon the employer. Eg: - Lower productivity levels and lost time.  - Costs associated with payment of wages, medical bills, rehabilitation and conselling - Cost to replace the injured worker: advertising, interviewing and training a new employee -Legal costs and fines may result from WorkCover or the injured person may take the PCBU to court if negligence is apparent
1.1.4 Economic Costs

Annotations:

  • Eg: - Low productivity levels - Burden on the health system (medicare costs) - Accident investigation conducted by health and safety authorities (Work Cover) - Legal costs if taken to court
1.2 Primary role and function of key bodies
1.2.1 Safe Work Australia

Annotations:

  • Safe Work Australia leads the development of policy to improve work health and safety and workers' compensation across Australia. 
1.2.2 WorkCover NSW

Annotations:

  • WorkCover is the NSW government body that - enforces work health and safety legislation  - provides assistance to business regarding health and safety, workers' compensation and rehabilitation - specify documentation and reporting procedures that should be in place.  - send inspectors to carry out investigations - issue notices and penalties WorkCover must be notified immediately if a notifiable incident (death of a person, a serious injury or illness, a dangerous incident) occurs
1.2.3 Local Councils

Annotations:

  • Local councils - provide organisations with guidelines to follow, particularly with respect to the design of building and al fresco (outdoor) areas.  - specify the number of chairs that can be placed along walkways and what an organisation must do to comply with standards set by the council
1.2.4 Unions and Professional Association

Annotations:

  • are able to provide advice. A Liquor and Hospitality Division of the United Voice is a the trade union, covering hospo workers and provide advice to workers who are members Employer Association, affiliated with the Australian Hotels Association provide valuable advices regarding WHS through their publications, website, directly or through the conferences. 
1.3 Compliance

Annotations:

  • Every organisation must follow health and safety laws to ensure workplaces are free from harm for both workers and visitors. 
1.3.1 Work Health and Safety Act 2011 (NSW)

Annotations:

  • Aim: to protect workers and other ppl against harm to their health and safety, through elimination or minimisation of hazards and to protect worker's welfare. The legislation states that a person conducting a business or undertaking (PCBU) and workers must do what is reasonably practical to ensure health and safety, taking into consideration a number of factors such as: - the likelihood of the hazards or risk - the degree of harm that may result - availability of measures to eliminate or reduce the risk, costs associated in taking actions
1.3.1.1 Duty of Care

Annotations:

  • refers to the responsibilities and practices of PCBU and workers that must be undertaken to ensure health and safety of all in the workplace.  If a PCBU fails to perform their duty of care, they may be prosecuted and fined. Workers who behave carelessly and cause injury to themselves and others intentionally may not be covered by workers' compensation and may be fined. 
1.3.1.1.1 PCBU

Annotations:

  • A PCBU applies to individuals and organisations that are legal entities conducting a business or undertaking.  A PCBU has a primary duty of care to workers and other persons, which is detailed below - Must ensure the health and safety of workers and other ppl - Must undertake maintenance of the work environment and equipment to ensure that it is without risks - Provide and maintain safe systems of work - Ensure the safe use, handling and storage of equipment and chemicals - Provide adequate facilities for the welfare of workers - Provide info, training and instruction or supervision that is necessary to the protect all people from risks - Monitor the health of workers and the conditions at the workplace for the purpose of preventing illness or injury - Consult workers regarding matters and decisions relating to health and safety
1.3.1.1.2 Workers

Annotations:

  • A worker is a person who carries out work in any capacity for a PCBU (an employee, a contractor, an apprentice or trainee, a work experience student or a volunteer,..) A worker has a duty to  - Take reasonable care for own health and safety - Take reasonable care for the health and safety of others - Comply with any reasonable instruction by the PCBU - Cooperate with any reasonable policy or procedure relating to health and safety at the workplace. 
1.3.2 WHS Regulation 2011 (NSW)

Annotations:

  • Supports the WHS Act 2011 (NSW) by providing additional details for PCBUs on how certain sections of the Act are to be implemented.  This includes: - The establishment, election and training of H and S Representatives - General risk and general workplace management provisions - Specific requirements for the elimination and control risks from several different hazards - The duties of PCBUs in relation to equipment or the internal/external structure of the building - Provision for hazardous chemicals - Penalties and infringement notices are also detailed
1.3.3 Health and Safety Representative

Annotations:

  • Role: - to REPRESENT the workers in the work group in matters relating to work health and safety  - to MONITOR the measures taken by the PCBU to meet their obligations - to INVESTIGATE health and safety complaints from members of the work group - to LOOK INTO anything that appears to be a risk as a result of the PCBU actions
1.3.4 Codes of Practice

Annotations:

  • are detailed practical guidelines on how to achieve the standards required under the WHS legislation, by identifying hazards and managing risks
1.3.4.1 Health and Safety Risks

Annotations:

  • the How to Manage WHS Risks code of practice provides practical guidance for those who have duties to manage risks under the WHS Act and Regulations.  This includes: - how to identify hazards - assess and control risks - review controls - keep records
1.3.4.2 Hazardous Manual Tasks

Annotations:

  • the Hazardous Manual Tasks code of practice describes hazardous manual tasks and how to manage the risks associated.  It explains - how to identify hazardous manual tasks - assess the risks - control the risks - review control measures
1.3.4.3 Labelling of Workplace Hazardous Chemicals

Annotations:

  • It provides practical advice on how to correctly label hazardous chemicals in the workplace.  It includes info that must be written on the label (ingredients, manufacturer/importer, expiry date,..)  It makes reference to the decanting or transfer of hazardous chemicals into smaller containers
1.3.4.4 Managing Risks of Hazardous Chemical in the Workplace

Annotations:

  • provides practical guidance on how to manage H and S risks related to hazardous chemicals.  It includes  - a definition of hazardous chemicals - names of prohibited/restricted chemicals - identifying hazards - assessing and controlling risks - monitoring and review - emergency preparedness
1.3.4.5 WHS Consultation, Cooperation and Coordination

Annotations:

  • is a practical guide for PCBU on how to effectively consult with workers who are directly affected by a health and safety matter.  It includes  - info on when and how to consult with workers - what is effective consultation - how to consult, cooperate and coordinate activities with other duty holders
1.3.4.6 Offences and Penalties

Annotations:

  • If a PCBU or worker(s) fail to meet their responsibilities under WHS laws, they will be prosecuted and fined. legal action may also be undertaken; or the business may be forced to close down. 
1.4 Consultation

Annotations:

  • Under WHS legislation, a PCBU must consult with employees on health and safety issues. This includes: - the identification of hazards and assessment of risks - when making decision about how to eliminate or minimise risks - when making decisions about the adequacy of facilities for the workers' welfare - when proposing changes that may affect workers' health and safety (new equipment or system at work) - when making decisions about methods of consultation, any health and safety issues, or how to monitor health and safety
  • Consultation must provide 
1.5 Monitoring and Reporting WHS

Annotations:

  • Monitoring WHS involves - the SUPERVISION and TRAINING of workers (undertaking a physical audit of the workplace by walking around and identifying any hazards present) - CONSULTING  with workers, and ensuring workers REPORT issues of concern.  REPORTING involves informing others of risks, hazards, unsafe work practices, breaches of WHS, incidents or injuries that have occurred.  Reporting may occur FORMALLY or INFORMALLY, in a WRITTEN or VERBAL FORM.  When reporting and recording, staff must follow workplace policies and protocols, as well as regulatory requirements. 
1.5.1 Records

Annotations:

  • REGISTERS  a Central Register should be used for the following documentattion - MSDS for all chemicals - minutes from the H and S committee meetings - a list of first aid personnel - accident that have occurred and first aid carried out
  • LOGS Log books may consist of a HAZARD REPORT LOG and an INCIDENT REPORT LOG It is a pro-active method to record hazards and incidents even if an injury has not occurred.  The hazards responsible for the near misses can be controlled before an injury occurs. 
  • FORMS  forms are required to report accidents and completed by a supervisor or manager with the worker.  WorkCover forms also need to be completed when a notifiable incident occurs. 
  • CHECKLIST The H and S committee would fill out Hazard Checklists when conducting an inspection.  Supervisors may complete COMPETENCY CHECKLISTS for employees they oversee.  this checklist outlines all the knowledge and skills an employee requires to undertake a particular task.  EQUIPMENT CHECKLISTS may be used to ensure equipment is in good working order. 
  • FILES records of employee injuries and rehabilitation undertaken should be filed away for future reference.  It enables the organisation to track training and forecast any future initiative that may need to be undertaken. 
1.5.2 Reporting Injuries

Annotations:

  • 1. The injured worker must inform the supervision immediately. First aid should be provided and medical attention should be sought as required.  2. An accident report form must be completed by the supervision with the following details (employee's name, the type of injury, the date and time, the description of how the injury occured, witness) If a serious accident or incident or death occurs, WorkCover NSW must be notified immediately.  An investigation may take place.  The organisation;s Worker's Compensation Insurance provider must also be notified as they may undertake their own investigations.  Other personnel  - PCNU - Training officer - H and S representative - H and S committee - union representative 
1.6 Sources of Information
1.6.1 Legislation, Regulations, Codes of Practice and Laws

Annotations:

  • Legislation, regulations and codes of practice provide an organisation with extensive information related to health and and safety. Laws are rules that are applied to organisations and individual to regulate activities to ensure justices, fairness and protection.  Cth - Commonwealth legislation and applies to all of australia NSW (or any other state) only applies to that state or territory only.
  • Statue Law or Acts of Parliament is legislation passed by parliament Common Law is as a result of Judges' court decision that evolve overtime and is flexible to a degree Regulations are laws and provides additional details to support the general requirements of the relevant Acts of Parliament  Codes of Practice are practical guides for organisations to meet their obligations under the Act and Regulation.  Australian Standards provide minimal levels of performance or quality for a specific hazard, work process or product.  Hospo industry also have publish industry standards that can be used as a guide
1.6.2 Manufacturer's instruction manuals and specifications

Annotations:

  • They can provide info on procedures to follow when  - using equipment - periodic maintenance required - how to use chemical safely according to the MSDS - and what to do in an emergency
1.6.3 Insurance Companies

Annotations:

  • They offer financial protection in the event of theft, damage, injury or death of workers or visitors.  They can be a valuable sources of info as they want to minimise claims.  They publish handbooks and provide advice to their clients on how to reduce accidents and tackle safety issues. 
2 Procedures
2.1 Hazards

Annotations:

  • A hazard is anything that has the potential to cause harm to an individual.  A risk is the harm that could be caused by the hazard
2.1.1 physical and environmental

Annotations:

  • Def: Within work areas. can cause stress, headaches, dizziness and rashes. Eg:  - Exposure to heat/cold - Poor lighting or ventilation - Obstruction, wet floors, damaged floor - Unsafe shelving, falling objects - Noise - Inadequate amenities
2.1.2 Chemical

Annotations:

  • Def: involving cleaning agents or other chemicals. can cause burns, blindness by skin and eye contact. Eg: - Fume or vapours - Spillages - Chemical burns - Gases
2.1.3 Psychological

Annotations:

  • Def: effect the mental well being Eg:  - post traumatic distress syndrome - discrimination/harassment or bullying - stress, fatigue, shift work or angry customers
2.1.4 Radiation

Annotations:

  • Def: involves exposure from microwaves and ultra violet waves Eg: - faulty microwaves
2.1.5 Ergonomic

Annotations:

  • Def: refers to how the workstation, equipment and job/tasks are designed to suit human body Eg: - Work benches are too low - Equipment does not suit those operating it - Trolleys are not provided for manual handlings
2.1.6 Biological

Annotations:

  • Def: are invisible to the human eye and refer to micro organisms.  Eg: - Bacteria - Viruses - Infection - or contaminated air conditioning.
2.1.7 Human factors

Annotations:

  • Def: refers to hazards that are the result of self or others acting in an unsafe manner Eg: - carelessness, taking short cuts, playing practical jokes, ignoring safety procedures - lack of training, information, instruction or supervision - using incorrect equipment or the wrong techniques or poor personal health or hygiene
2.1.8 Manual handling

Annotations:

  • Def: Hazards associated with moving, pushing or lifting an object Eg: - Objects are too heavy or there are obstructrions - No trolleys available to transport objects
2.1.9 Tools and Equipment

Annotations:

  • Def: Using equipment that doesnt meet safety standards Eg: -faulty equipment, lack of maintenance, electrocution vibration, noise from machinery. 
2.1.10 Electricity and Gas

Annotations:

  • Def: Hazards associated with electricity include electrical shock and fire Eg: - Damaged cords - Gas leaks
2.1.11 Work Processes and Practices

Annotations:

  • Def: Hazards associated with systems of work or how the work is carried out. 
2.2 Risk Management

Annotations:

  • involves  - the identification of hazards - an assessment of the risks - putting procedures and practices in place to control and eliminate the hazards
2.2.1 Hazard Identification and Assessment
2.2.2 Risk Control (Hierarchy)

Annotations:

  • LEVEL 3 - Adopt administrative controls such as manuals on safe work procedures, safety posters, safety signage, job rotation, supervising staff adequately, and training staff on health and safety thoroughly - Ensure personal protective equipments is provided (goggles, gloves, non-slip shoes, ear plugs and protective clothing)
  • LEVEL 2 - SUBSTITUTING to a less hazardous substance or safer equipment or work procedure - MODIFYING the risk involves redesigning the work activity, changing the work environment or the objects to be handled. - ISOLATING the risk by restricting access to a particular area or moving the risk to a safer distance - ENGINEERING the work area by redesigning 
  • LEVEL 1 Eliminating the hazard or risk of exposure. This may include not using the equipment or not undertaking the activity that is the cause of the risk
2.2.3 Reporting hazards
2.3 Workplace injuries
2.4 Safe work practices and procedures
2.5 Security Practices and Procedures
3 Emergency situations
3.1 Types of Emergencies
3.2 Emergency Procedures
3.3 Reporting Emergencies
3.4 First Aid
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