Plant Reproduction

Hannah Walsh
Mind Map by Hannah Walsh, updated more than 1 year ago
Hannah Walsh
Created by Hannah Walsh almost 5 years ago
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Junior Cert level plant reproductive system
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Plant Reproduction
1 Reprodution is the formation of new individuals,it is one of the characteristics of life. Plants carry out both asexual and sexual reproduction. The flower is a structure in which plants sexua reproduction occurs. The stages in plant sexual reproduction are: Pollination, Fertilisation, Dispersal and Germination.
2 There are two types of reproduction when it comes to plants, there is 1)Asexual Reproduction 2)Sexual Reproduction
2.1 1)Asexual Reproduction
2.1.1 Asexual Reproduction only involves one parent
2.1.2 Fertilisation is not part of the process of asexual reproduction.
2.1.3 In asexual reproduction the offspring are identical to the parent.
2.1.4 EX-Strawberry plants are examples of Runners
2.1.5 Runners-A method of asexual reproduction in plants.
2.1.6
2.1.7 How it works:
2.2 2)Sexual Reproduction
2.2.1 Sexual Reproduction involves two parents
2.2.2 Gamete-A sex cell
2.2.3 Fertilisation is part of the sexual reproduction process
2.2.4 The offspring of sexual reproduction are not identical to their parents but have a mix of similar characteristics from each.
2.2.5 The flower contains structures needed for sexual reproduction
2.2.6 They are:
2.2.7
3 Their are five stages of Plant Reproduction 1)Pollination 2)Fertilisation 3)Seed and fruit formation 4)Dispersal 5)Germination
3.1 1)Pollination
3.1.1 The transfer of pollen from the stamen to the carpel
3.1.2 There are two types of pollination methods:
3.1.2.1 Wind Pollination
3.1.2.1.1 In wind pollination the carpel and stamen are usually located outside the plant so the wind that can carry its pollen can also blow the pollen of other plants onto the carpel starting the sexual reproduction process.
3.1.2.1.2
3.1.2.1.3 Plants of wind pollination tend not to be as colourful as those of Insect pollination because in order to attract insects, the petals of the flower must be coloured.
3.1.2.2 Insect Pollination
3.1.2.2.1 In insect pollination the Petals tend to be brighter to attract insects to them, also the reason the flowers produce Nectar is to lure the insects in so as they go for the nectar(sugar water)the pollen on the stamen will rub off the insects coat and stick, then when the insect leaves to go to another plant the pollen off the past plant will fall off the coat and fall on the carpel allowing the sexual reproduction process to begin.
3.1.2.2.2
3.2 2)Fertilisation
3.2.1 The joining of the Male and Female gametes to form a zygote.
3.2.2 Pollen carried from insects or the wind falls onto on the carpel which results in the pollen(male gamete) forming a tube down in the carpel to get to the ovary where the egg(female gamete) is held, it will then form a zygote when the egg and pollen fuse together.
3.2.3
3.3 3)Seed and Fruit Formation
3.3.1 The Seed/Fruit Structure
3.3.1.1
3.3.1.2 Once Fertilisation is complete the ovule forms a seed. Each starts off as a Zygote surrounded by food supply,the Zygote forms a tiny plant called an embryo.The embryo consists of a plumule and the radical.The plumule will form the furture shoot of the plant and the radicle will form the future roots of the plant.After fertilisation, the ovule swells with food causing a hard, tough shell called the Testa to form around the ovule ,the testa forms the coat of the seed. If there are more than one ovules then the fruit will contain many seeds eg-oranges.If not they will only contain a single seed,eg-Peaches.
3.4 4)Dispersal
3.4.1 Dispersal-The carrying of the seed as far as possible from the parent plant.
3.4.2 There are four types of dispersal:
3.4.2.1 Wind Dispersal
3.4.2.1.1 Seeds are dispersed by wind,they are often light and small.Some seed that use this method of dispersal have small devices to carry them longer distances.Eg-In the picture below.
3.4.2.1.1.1
3.4.2.2 Animal Dispersal
3.4.2.2.1 Animals can disperse seeds in two ways:They eat fruit that contains seed and the seeds get digested and eventually passed out later,or the fruit/seeds stick to the animals coat and fall away later.
3.4.2.2.1.1
3.4.2.3 Self Dispersal
3.4.2.3.1 Involves seeds bursting out of their pod out of their own accord.In this method they are flung away.
3.4.2.3.1.1
3.4.2.4 Water Dispersal
3.4.2.4.1 Some fruits are able to float carring the seeds inside of them,they are able to be carried away in streams and rivers.
3.4.2.4.1.1
3.5 5)Germination
3.5.1 The growth of a seed to form a new plant.
3.5.2 Conditions needed for germination are:1)Water 2)Oxygen 3)A suitable tempreture
3.5.3 The Main Events of Germination
3.5.3.1 1)Fruit from the seed allows the roots and shoot to grow.
3.5.3.2 2)The root grows down in the soil.
3.5.3.3 3)The shoot grows up into the air.
3.5.3.4 4)Once the shoot grows up it starts to form leaves and starts to make food for itself.
3.5.3.5
3.5.3.5.1
4 The Structure of the Plant
4.1
4.1.1 Petals-Protect the internal parts of the flower.Also the main reason the plants are brightly coloured are because bright colours attract insects for Insect pollination.
4.1.2 Sepals-The seplas protect the flower when it is a bud .(Before the flower blooms)
4.1.3 Carpel-Is the female part of the flower,each carpel produces an egg cell(the nucleus of the egg is the female gamete),some flowers have more than one carpel.
4.1.4 Stamen-The Stamen is the male part of the flower,The stamen produces Pollen grains(the nucleus of the pollen grain is the male gamete),most flowers have a large number of stamens.
4.1.5
4.1.5.1 The structure of the Carpel
4.1.5.2 Stigma-The stigma is the place the pollen grains will land.
4.1.5.3 Style-The style connects the stigma to the carpel ,in some plants the style is very short.
4.1.5.4 Ovary-The ovary contains one or more Ovules. Each Ovule produces an egg.The nucleus of the egg is the female gamete.
4.1.5.5
4.1.5.5.1 The Structure of the Stamen
4.1.5.5.2 Filament-The filament is a stalk that supports the anther.It ensures that the anthers are located high up in the flower, so that the pollen can leave the flower more easily.
4.1.5.5.3 Anther-The anther makes pollen grains. The nucleus in each pollen is the male gamete.
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