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Philosophy

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Mind Map on Philosophy, created by Fernando Ulloa on 09/08/2015.
Fernando  Ulloa
Mind Map by Fernando Ulloa, updated more than 1 year ago
Fernando  Ulloa
Created by Fernando Ulloa over 6 years ago
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Resource summary

Philosophy
  1. Myth
    1. Narration that tries to give an order to the universe.
      1. It is diveded in 3 ways of understanding myths
        1. attenuated form of intellectuality, autonomous form of thinking, instrument of social control
      2. Etymological meaning of philosophy
        1. “The love of wisdom”
          1. Main questions
            1. What can I know? What ought I to do? What may I hope?
          2. Approaches to philosophy
            1. Love and pursuit of wisdom
              1. Type of nuturing love
                1. Seeks knowledge
              2. Rational justification of beliefs
                1. Seeks for rational explanations for our beliefs. Questions our behavior (correct/incorrect)
                2. Question of fundamental beliefs
                  1. For daily life actions and decisions
                  2. Self understanding
                    1. Being able to understand our role and purpose
                      1. What are we doing here?
                  3. Branches of philosophy
                    1. Metaphysics
                      1. Known as the first science
                        1. Known as the first science. Goes beyond the physical world.
                      2. Ontology
                        1. Study the essence of things
                          1. why the things are what they are?
                        2. Theodicy
                          1. Study god by the use of reason, tries to explain god's wishes, and god itself.
                            1. There are 3 kinds of theodicy: Mythical, Natural and Civil
                          2. Cosmology
                              1. Study the origins of the universe
                            1. Logic
                              1. Study of the methods used to recognize what is correct or incorrect
                                1. Is the reasoning about the best option.
                              2. Ethics
                                1. Study the behavior of the human being,
                                  1. Divided in right and wrong.
                                2. Politics
                                  1. Studies the structure of the society
                                    1. State, Government, politics, liberty, justice and authority
                                  2. Aesthetics
                                    1. Is the study of artistic phenomenon and how it affects thought
                                    2. Anthropology
                                      1. Understanding of the human nature throughout history.
                                    3. Pre-Socratic Cosmologists
                                      1. Pythagoras
                                        1. Anything could be understood by mathematical reasoning.
                                        2. Anaximenes
                                          1. Everything in the universe comes from aire.
                                            1. He established the existence of a microcosmos and a macrocosmos
                                          2. Empedocles
                                            1. everything in the universe is conformed by water, wind, earth and fire.
                                            2. Democritus
                                              1. the universe is conformed by particles (Atoms).
                                                1. Are uncountable and indivisible.
                                              2. Parmenides
                                                1. he universe will not change, the change doesn't exist.
                                                  1. He said “What is, is; What isnt, isnt”. .
                                                    1. The universe is something indivisible and unchanging
                                                  2. Thales
                                                    1. First philosopher known ever. Fahter of science. Believed the water was the origin of everything.
                                                    2. Anaximander
                                                      1. Created the concept of “aperon”, shapeless, infinite grater than anything.
                                                      2. Arche
                                                        1. The first cause and principle
                                                        2. Heraclitus
                                                          1. He thought that everything in the universe is a change, All things are in the way of becoming something else.
                                                            1. Change has order-logos
                                                          2. Anaxagoras
                                                            1. Everything in the universe is an array of “seeds”
                                                            2. Hybris
                                                              1. chaotic, violent, without form, no-reasonable, without balance
                                                            3. Philosophical Questions
                                                              1. Content
                                                                1. Sense of Life
                                                                  1. Value of a particular act
                                                                    1. Existential
                                                                      1. They refer to something essential for the individual and for the whole humanity
                                                                      2. Moral legitimacy
                                                                      3. Approach
                                                                        1. Critique
                                                                          1. Goes from an affirmation to an interrogation
                                                                          2. Rational
                                                                            1. Based on critical thinking.
                                                                            2. Universal
                                                                              1. Questions related to human condition.
                                                                              2. Abstract
                                                                                1. They use abstract and generic notions with undetermined verbal persons
                                                                                2. Open
                                                                                  1. They can be answered from many standpoints
                                                                              3. Sophists
                                                                                1. Protagoras
                                                                                  1. “Man is the measure of all things”
                                                                                    1. knowledge is in a constant change.
                                                                                      1. knowledge was limited only to the individual itself. The world exists according to the viewer.
                                                                                      2. what the individual saw existed, and what the individual did not saw did not existed
                                                                                      3. Gorgias
                                                                                        1. First “Nothing exists”; second, “If something exists, then we cannot know it”; third, “If we knew something we would not be able to communicate it”.
                                                                                          1. Dissertation on knowledge based on senses
                                                                                            1. We can imagine somethingbut that doesn´t make it real.
                                                                                          2. Framework
                                                                                            1. Were located in Greece when Athens creates an international economy involving all Mediterranean cities
                                                                                              1. Arts evolved enormously leading to a better understanding of nature, and to the Sophists (Wiseman) as the first humanists in history.
                                                                                                1. first time in history a democratic political system is used to govern
                                                                                                2. They taught the art of persuasion
                                                                                              2. Socrates
                                                                                                1. Framework
                                                                                                  1. Believed in the power of spoken word thus he never wrote anything
                                                                                                  2. Eristic
                                                                                                    1. Persuasion
                                                                                                      1. Trying to win an argument
                                                                                                    2. Maieutic
                                                                                                      1. To create new concepts or ideas through questions.
                                                                                                      2. Socratic Method
                                                                                                        1. Questioning the knowledge that we had already established as truth, by asking questions in order to find the real truth about things.
                                                                                                        2. Dialectics
                                                                                                          1. Postulation of one thesis, analyzing this thesis and stating an antithesis, finally establishing a synthesis
                                                                                                          2. Dialogue
                                                                                                            1. Is constant search truth using the spoken language as its mean
                                                                                                          3. Plato and the World of Ideas
                                                                                                            1. Framework
                                                                                                              1. Plato said that the universe was separated in two worlds
                                                                                                                1. The sensitive world
                                                                                                                  1. The world of forms
                                                                                                                2. Cavern Myth
                                                                                                                  1. We live in a world of shadows, controled by the government, religion, and media.
                                                                                                                    1. Above the cavern is the world ideas, perfect .
                                                                                                                  2. Concept of Beauty
                                                                                                                    1. Is just an idea
                                                                                                                    2. Utopian Republic
                                                                                                                      1. In which every person has an specific task and she/he is an expert in it.
                                                                                                                      2. World of ideas
                                                                                                                        1. Plato observed that things can´t ever be made without calification.
                                                                                                                          1. Things are only perfect in the world of ideas
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