General Pathoanatomy Final MCQs (401-519)- 3rd Year- PMU

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General Pathoanatomy Final MCQs (401-500)- 3rd Year- PMU

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Question 1

Question
Which type of cancer corresponds with the description "develops from glandular epithelium"?
Answer
  • transitional cell carcinoma
  • adenocarcinoma
  • squamous cell carcinoma
  • sarcoma

Question 2

Question
Point an etiology of the hemorrhagic infarction in the lung:
Answer
  • thrombosis of a branch of a. bronchialis
  • thrombosis of a branch of v. pulmonalis
  • embolism of a branch of a. pulmonalis
  • chronic venous stasis in the lung

Question 3

Question
State which of the following is a macroscopic characteristic of adenocarcinoma:
Answer
  • like a "bowl"
  • like a "cauliflower"
  • round non-healing ulcers on the face
  • very dense knot in the face

Question 4

Question
Which of the following terms are associated with amyloid deposition?
Answer
  • porphiric spleen
  • 'sago' spleen
  • big white kidney
  • flint-like liver

Question 5

Question
The most common localization of lymphangioma is:
Answer
  • the face
  • in sella turcica
  • on the phalanges of the toes
  • lips, tongue

Question 6

Question
Presence of the lymphocytes and plasma cells in the stroma of tumors is called:
Answer
  • reactive inflammation
  • morphological anaplasia
  • stromal reaction
  • sinus histiocytosis

Question 7

Question
Factors for collateral arterial hyperemia are:
Answer
  • progressive obstruction of end-artery
  • a sudden blockage of a main blood vessel
  • venous stasis
  • presence of shunts

Question 8

Question
Metachromasia is:
Answer
  • immunohistochemical reaction
  • expression of cellular atypia
  • changing the background color of the stain depending on the chemical composition of the tissue
  • impregnation methodology for argirophilic fibers

Question 9

Question
Carcinoids are:
Answer
  • tumor-like process
  • benign tumors
  • malignant tumors
  • hyperplastic process

Question 10

Question
In course of diabetes mellitus the deposit of glycogen could be observed in:
Answer
  • C cells of islets of Langerhans
  • Cardiomyocytes
  • In epithelium of Henle's loop
  • Nuclei of liver cells

Question 11

Question
The description „signet ring" cell is used for:
Answer
  • fatty degeneration of hepatocytes
  • mucus producing adenocarcinoma
  • vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes
  • glycogen infiltration of Henle's loop

Question 12

Question
Which of these mechanisms are NOT related to a hyaline degeneration
Answer
  • alkalosis
  • increased protein synthesis
  • enhanced rearbsorbsion
  • acidosis

Question 13

Question
In mechanical jaundice the following could be seen:
Answer
  • indirect bilirubin predominates in blood
  • in the urine is increased urobilinogen
  • bilirubin is found in urine
  • feces are intensively dark

Question 14

Question
Specify the conditions and diseases in which dystrophic calcification could be
Answer
  • atherocalcinosis
  • deposition of calcium in the stomach
  • calcified venous thrombi
  • calcifications in primary tuberculotic complex

Question 15

Question
Amyloid has following characteristics:
Answer
  • is identified in polarized light in tioflavin S
  • hows metahromasia with Perls
  • no fluorescence in congorot milieu
  • ultrastructurally has fibrillary structure

Question 16

Question
Massive embolism in the trunk of the pulmonary artery causes:
Answer
  • death from sudden cardiac arrest
  • algor mortis (mortal terror)
  • hemorrhagic infarction in lung
  • asphyxia

Question 17

Question
There is no such embolism like:
Answer
  • parasitic
  • tumor cell
  • bacterial
  • viral

Question 18

Question
Nutmeg liver occurs in:
Answer
  • thrombosis of v. portae
  • cor pulomonale chronicum
  • retrograde embolism from v. poplitea
  • chronic right heart failure

Question 19

Question
List the elements of granulation tissue:
Answer
  • newly formed blood vessels
  • giant cells
  • collagen fibers
  • fibroblasts

Question 20

Question
How does carcinoma in situ metastasize?
Answer
  • by the lymph flow
  • perineural
  • by the blood flow
  • does not metastasize

Question 21

Question
The most frequent localization of neurinoma in the skull is:
Answer
  • ponto-cerebellar angle
  • falx cerebri
  • tentorium cerebelli
  • cerebellum

Question 22

Question
It is recommended for biopsies to be taken with and from:
Answer
  • electric knife
  • from the periphery of the lesion to the border with healthy tissue
  • from the central area of lesion
  • by cutting

Question 23

Question
"Tiger" heart is diagnosed in terms of:
Answer
  • subepicardial deposition of adipose tissue
  • deposition of adipose tissue in septal wall
  • papillary muscle cells with fatty change
  • in infarction area of the left ventricle

Question 24

Question
Hyialine-drop degeneration is:
Answer
  • extracellular degeneration
  • fatty degeneration
  • type of cellular injury
  • carbohydrate degeneration

Question 25

Question
Hyperemic-hemorrhagic area occurs in:
Answer
  • gout around ureic acid deposits
  • anemic infarction
  • nodular amyloidosis
  • pneumonia crouposa

Question 26

Question
Which are the conditions for the development of hemorrhagic infarction of the lung?
Answer
  • thrombosis of a bronchial artery
  • double circulation of the lung
  • embolism of a pulmonary artery branch
  • chronic venous congestion in the lung

Question 27

Question
Which of the followings are the elements of the Virhov's triad?
Answer
  • damage to the endothelium of vascular wall
  • change in the composition of blood
  • delay and disruption of blood flow
  • acceleration of blood flow

Question 28

Question
Secondary lung hemosiderosis can develop in:
Answer
  • chronic right-sided heart failure
  • left-sided chronic heart failure
  • 'pulmonary heart'
  • tricuspid valve insufficiency

Question 29

Question
In which of the following pathological processes occur a deep fibrinous inflammation:
Answer
  • fibrinous tracheitis
  • pneumonia crouposa
  • diphtheria of the tonsils
  • fibrinous pericarditis

Question 30

Question
Decide which cells are found in tuberculoid granuloma:
Answer
  • xantomal cells
  • epitheloid cells
  • giant cells "foreign body" type
  • giant cell 'Tuton'

Question 31

Question
Signet-ring cells are seen in:
Answer
  • in obesity
  • vacuolar degeneration of tubular epithelium in kidney
  • liver steatosis
  • adenocarcinoma accumulating mucus in tumor cells

Question 32

Question
Squamous cell carcinoma may develop from:
Answer
  • mouth mucosa
  • lining of the bronchi
  • lining of the vaginal part of cervix
  • epithelium of gastric mucosa

Question 33

Question
Dermoid cyst is:
Answer
  • mature teratoma, which occurrs most frequently in the ovary
  • benign tumor of cells of the soft meninges
  • pigmental tumor
  • benign tumor associated with pregnancy

Question 34

Question
Basal cell cancer is localized most often:
Answer
  • in the skin of the forearm
  • skin on palms
  • skin of the lower limbs
  • face

Question 35

Question
The term "patognomonic changes' means:
Answer
  • unexplained changes
  • changes specific for the diagnosis
  • paradoxal changes
  • diffuse inflammatory changes

Question 36

Question
Amyloid demonstrates the following characteristics:
Answer
  • is a fibrillary protein
  • is positive with Perls stain
  • is Congo-red negative
  • is deposited in giant cells

Question 37

Question
Specify the correct meaning:
Answer
  • livores — postmortem change of the color in certain (lower) parts of the body
  • rigor mortis - cooling of the body after death
  • algor mortis — postmortem muscle stiffness
  • autolysis — postmortem decay

Question 38

Question
ULCUS RODENS (rodent ulcer) is a metaphor for macroscopical finding in:
Answer
  • adenocarcinoma of the stomach
  • luetic ulcer
  • rodent bites
  • basal cell carcinoma

Question 39

Question
Complete and entire removing of a lesion applies to which type of biopsy :
Answer
  • incision biopsy
  • aspiration biopsy
  • excision biopsy
  • puncture biopsy

Question 40

Question
Specify the typical signs of mucoid edema
Answer
  • positive staining for fibrin
  • metachromasia when staining with Toluidine blue
  • basophilia of extracellular matrix
  • preserved striation of transverse collagen fibers

Question 41

Question
Embolus coming out of the right atrium may be found in which of these vessels?
Answer
  • a. pulmonalis
  • vv. pulmonalis
  • aorta
  • a. bronchialis

Question 42

Question
Lung hemosiderosis can develop in:
Answer
  • chronic right-sided heart failure
  • chronic left-sided heart failure
  • mitral valve stenosis
  • tricuspid valve insufficiency

Question 43

Question
How to prove air embolism:
Answer
  • in the presence of witnesses
  • by puncture in the right ventricle
  • autopsy should be done when the dead body is immersed in water
  • by puncture in left ventricle

Question 44

Question
Which are the predisposing conditions for development of hemorrhagic infarction of the lung?
Answer
  • thrombosis of a branch of bronchial artery
  • thromboembolism of a branch of pulmonary artery
  • double circulation of the lungs
  • chronic venous congestion in the lung

Question 45

Question
Hyperemic-haemorrhagic zone occurs in:
Answer
  • in gout around uric acid deposits
  • anemic infarction
  • nodular amyloidosis
  • pneumonia 'crouposa'

Question 46

Question
The term 'mononuclear' inflammatory infiltrate includes:
Answer
  • eosinophils
  • neutrophils
  • plasma cells
  • lymphocytes

Question 47

Question
What type of changes predominate in proliferative (chronic) specific inflammation:
Answer
  • granulomas
  • abscess
  • diffuse inflammation
  • all of the above

Question 48

Question
The development of a new tumor in the scarring area of previously surgically removed malignant tumor is called:
Answer
  • recurrence
  • ectopia
  • malignant degeneration
  • retrograde metastasis

Question 49

Question
Presence of lymphocytes and plasma cells in the stroma of tumors is called:
Answer
  • reactive inflammation
  • morphological anaplasia
  • stromal reaction
  • sinus histiocytosis

Question 50

Question
Epithelial cancers are characterized by:
Answer
  • expansive growth
  • cell atypia
  • mostly lymphogenic metastases
  • metastases mainly by hematogenous way

Question 51

Question
The term "patognomonic" changes mean:
Answer
  • unexplained changes
  • changes specific for the diagnosis
  • paradoxal changes
  • diffuse inflammatory changes

Question 52

Question
The following microscopic description of a liver steciment indicate: "After preparation of the specimen with paraffin method and staining with H-E, hepatocytes show empty vacuoles with different size, the nuclei are often displaced to the periphery and the cytoplasm looks empty."
Answer
  • liver steatosis/fatty liver
  • liver anthracosis
  • liver jaundice
  • liver hemosiderosis

Question 53

Question
Which type of liver degeneration can be proved with the following description? — The specimen is prepared from fresh unfixed tissue or fixed with formalin, cut on a frozen microtom and stained with Sudan Ill in orange.
Answer
  • carbohydrate degeneration
  • cell edema
  • bilirubin accumulation/jaundice in the liver
  • fatty degeneration/liver steatosis

Question 54

Question
The following gross description "red and yellow stripes in the papillary muscles" is characteristic for:
Answer
  • lipomatosis of the heart
  • tiger heart
  • fatty liver
  • jaundice of the liver

Question 55

Question
The following gross description "fatty accumulation along the coronary vessels, but in severe cases the lipid accumulation is diffusely spread under the epicardium" is characteristic for:
Answer
  • lipomatosis of the heart
  • tiger heart
  • fatty degeneration of the heart
  • all of the above

Question 56

Question
The following description indicate which type of change: "Peribronchial and perivascular spaces revealled black pigment which on high magnification appears as small granules. Some of the pigment is found in the macrophages lying in the alveolar spaces (coniophages)".
Answer
  • coal dust in lungs
  • antracosis pulmonis
  • brown induration of lungs
  • lung infarction

Question 57

Question
What change of the lung is described? — H-E staining: The alveoli are filled with siderophages. They accumulate golden-brown pigment as a result of phagocytosis of the hemolized erytrocytes due to intra-alveolar per-diapedesin hemorrhages. Intraalveolar septa are thickened because of the development of connective tissue.
Answer
  • antracosis pulmonis
  • hemorrhagic infarction of the lung
  • hemosiderosis pulmonis
  • lung edema

Question 58

Question
The following microscopic description indicates: "Yellow-brown-green pigment is accumulated as tiny granules in the cytoplasm of the hepatocytes, in the lumens of the biliary capillaries as bile thrombi and in the lumens of bileducts as cylinders.
Answer
  • fatty degeneration of the liver
  • massive necrosis of the liver
  • chronic venous congestion of the liver
  • jaundice of the liver

Question 59

Question
The following microscopic description indicates: H-E staining: The epithelial cells of the renal tubules accumulate yellow browm-green pigment as tiny granules in their cytoplasm. The same pigment is accumulated as cylinders in the lumens of the straight and collective renal tubules
Answer
  • argyria of the kidney
  • jaundice of the kidney/icterus renis
  • carbohydrate degeneration of the kidney
  • chronic pyelonephritis

Question 60

Question
The following microscopic description indicates: H-E staining: The lesion consists of nests of normal melanocytes that accumulate different quantity of brown-black pigment. These cells can be found in papillary or reticular derma of the skin.
Answer
  • naevus pigmentosus
  • melanoma malignum
  • skin oedema
  • basal cell carcinoma

Question 61

Question
The following gross description of the lungs is typical for: "Brick-red to brown colour of the lungs, firm consistency, decreased elasticity"
Answer
  • antracosis pulmonis
  • brown induration of the lungs
  • pneumonia developing in both lungs
  • lung infarction

Question 62

Question
The following clinical features: left-sided heart failure, dyspnoe (shortness of breath), frequent cough with rusty colour expectoration, can be seen in:
Answer
  • brown induration of the lungs/hemosiderosis of lungs
  • heart tamponade
  • 1st degree AV-block
  • all of the above

Question 63

Question
Which heart disease can be described with the following microscopic picture'. The cuspid valve when stained with H-E shows loose area — clear and unstained spaces between fibrous structures representing interstitional mucoid Fibroblasts are seen around this clear zone and in the periphery of the cuspid valve (sign of fibrosis). The valve contains many newly formed capillaries (the is called vascularization).
Answer
  • acute endocarditis
  • subacute endocarditis
  • age-related degeneration of the valve
  • rheumatism

Question 64

Question
Which answer is correct for the following microscopic description: I-I-E staining: The liver columns are atrophic, the sinusoids look dilated. The hepatocytes are smaller in size and contain brown-golden pigment granules with perinuclear localization.
Answer
  • nutmeg liver
  • cyanosis hepatis
  • acute hepatitis
  • atrophy of the liver

Question 65

Question
"The following description of the liver is indicative for: The liver is increased in size, with firm texture, red-purple color, congested vessels, microscopically the sinusoids are dilated and filled with erythrocytes.
Answer
  • hepar muschatum/nutmeg liver
  • cyanosis of the liver
  • brown atrophy of the liver
  • liver cirrhosis

Question 66

Question
The following description of the liver is indicative for: The liver is increased in size, with motley cut surface showing red areas surrounded by yellow halo:
Answer
  • nutmeg liver
  • cyanosis of the liver
  • brown atrophy of the liver
  • liver cirrhosis

Question 67

Question
The following microscopic description is indicative for: H-E staining: Sinusoids are dilated and filled with blood. "Bloody lakes"are seen in the centro-lobular areas among the necrotic hepatocytes. The hepatocytes around them are with lipid degeneration and look like "signet-ring" cells. In the intermediate lobular areas the hepatocytes are atrophic.
Answer
  • cyanosis hepatis
  • nutmeg liver
  • liver cirrhosis
  • liver amyloidosis

Question 68

Question
The following microscopic description is indicative for: H-E staining: Alveolar spaces are filled with precipitaded homogenous pink fluid. Alveolar septi and capillaries are dilated and filled with erythrocytes. Airy bubbles can be found in the alveolar cavities and in the lumens of bronchi.
Answer
  • hemorrhagic infarction of the lung
  • hemosiderosis pulmonis
  • pulmofibrosis
  • lung edema

Question 69

Question
Indicate the cause of death according to the described test. "After Y-shaped opening of the pericardium, the pulmonary artery is cut on 2cm after its beginning. Tweezers are inserted in the vessel and its content is taken out, which looks dry and crumblie".
Answer
  • massive thromboembolism in the trunk of a. pulmonalis (saddle embolus)
  • air embolism
  • amniotic embolism
  • heart tamponade

Question 70

Question
Indicate the cause of death according to the described test: "After Y-shaped opeing, the pericardial sac is filled with water. After puncture of the right heart ventricle with a sharp knife are seen air bubbles".
Answer
  • massive thromboembolism in the trunk of a.pulmonalis (saddle embolus)
  • air embolism
  • amniotic embolism
  • heart tamponade

Question 71

Question
The following microscopic description is indicative for: H-E staining. Thrombus formation with layered structure, occluding completely or partially the lumen of the blood vessel. In the area of disturbed endothelial layer is seen alternation of pink stripes and bands (aggregated thrombocytes and fibrin fibres) and orange accumulations (erythrocytes).
Answer
  • red thrombus
  • white thrombus
  • mixed thrombus
  • hyaline thrombus

Question 72

Question
The following microscopic description of the kidney is indicative for: H-E staining: On low magnification is seen pinkish area with no nuclei or picnotic nuclei and the cytoplasms of the necrotic cells is granular and eosinophillic. Kidney structures look like shadows. This pinkish area is surrounded by blue rim, of inflammatory cells (lymphocytes and leucocyts) and thin band of erythrocytes (the so called hyperemic-hemorrhagic area).
Answer
  • acute pyelonephritis
  • anemic infarction of the kidney
  • amyloidosis of the kidney
  • chronic pyelonephritis

Question 73

Question
The following microscopic description of the lung indicates for: On H-E staining: Necropsy material taken 24 hours after death. The alveoli are filled with agglutinated and hemolized erythrocytes, the alveolar walls are necrotic. The preserved alveoli are filled with edematous fluid and hemosiderophages. The latest changes are a sign for chronic venous congestion.
Answer
  • hemorrhagic infarction of the lung and hemosiderosis
  • pneumonia and hemosiderosis
  • small cell cancer and hemosiderosis
  • pneumonia and lung edema

Question 74

Question
The following microscopic description of the lung is indicative for: The specimen is prepared by frozen section of unfixed tissue. Sudan Ill staining shows round, oval, elongated or branched, orange stained drops in the capillaries, with complete occlusion of their lumen.
Answer
  • parasite embolism of the lung
  • thromboembolism of the lung
  • amniotic embolism
  • fat embolism of the lung

Question 75

Question
What is the organ diagnosis if during autopsy are seen the following changes: Complicated atherosclerotic plaques of the aorta and renal arteries with ulceration and thrombosis, small in size right kidney showing depressed area in its middle part, which is 3x4cm in size, with pale color, firm texture and triangular shape.
Answer
  • chronic pyelonephritis
  • anemic infarction of the kidney
  • chronic glomerulonephritis
  • abscess of the kidney

Question 76

Question
The following microscopic description of the heart is indicative for: H-E staining: Among the myocardium are found cavities filled with purulent exudate. In the centre of some of them are seen groups of microorganisms, stained in dark blue. The adjacent cardiomyocytes are with dystrophic changes, multitude neutrophiles are seen in the interstitium.
Answer
  • acute purulent pericarditis
  • acute absceding myocarditis
  • acute viral myocarditis
  • rheumatic myocarditis

Question 77

Question
What is the described disease in the liver? H-E staining "Description of the wall of a cyst. Pink slender membrane is pathognomonic for the disease. It represents tick, multilayered acellular band which looks like "cigarette smoke". There is a fibrous capsule between the membrane and the normal liver tissue, compoused of collagen connective tissue. Single bile ducts and chronic inflammatory cells are included among the collagen fibres."
Answer
  • actinomycosis
  • amebiasis
  • chronic abscess
  • echinococcus

Question 78

Question
Suggest the correct answer according to the following microscopic description. H-E staining: The tumor is composed of branches and nests of basal type cells — spindle, with scanty cytoplasm and moderate atypia of nuclei. Mitoses are rarely seen. In the solid nests tumor cells have palisade peripheral arrangement The stromal reaction is presented by lymphocytes and plasma cells. The tumor nests infiltrate the deep dermal layers.
Answer
  • basal cell papilloma of the skin
  • squamous cell carcinoma of the skin
  • pigmented nevus
  • basal cell carcinoma of the skin

Question 79

Question
Indicate the correct answer for the following description: "Tumor-like process located on the gingiva. Histologically, under the stratified squamous gingival epithelium are found fibroblast-like cells and giant cells looking like osteoclasts, located in optically empty spaces. Light stripe of connective tissue separates the epithelium and the tumor-like process
Answer
  • fibroma
  • giant cell epulis
  • adamantinoma
  • cementoma

Question 80

Question
Indicate the diagnosis according to the following microscopic description: H-E staining: The thyroid gland is lavishly infiltrated by the lymphocytes and plasma cells. Plenty of lymph follicles are also formed, they are with the wide light centres. The lymphoid infiltration disrupts the lymph follicles; in the preserved ones the colloid is scanty or missing. High cubic eosinophilic cells of Hurtle type can be seen.
Answer
  • Goiter
  • Riddle thyroiditis
  • Lymphoma in the thyroid gland
  • Hashimoto thyroiditis

Question 81

Question
Suggest the diagnosis according to the following microscopic description: H-E staining: Capsulated tumor with uneven, lobular structure. Different lobules are made up of cells containing optically empty vacuoles in their cytoplasm They push the cells' nuclei to the periphery under the cytoplasmic membrane.
Answer
  • fibroma
  • leiomyoma
  • lymphangioma
  • lipoma

Question 82

Question
Suggest the correct diagnosis according to the following microscopic description. H-E staining: Unencapsulated intradermal tumor which is poorly distinguished from the adjacent tissue and covered by the atrophic epidermis. The tumor is composed of the capillary vessels with erythrocytes in their lumena.
Answer
  • cavernous hemangioma of the skin
  • capillary lymphangioma of the skin
  • capillary hemangioma of the skin
  • hygroma of the skin

Question 83

Question
Suggest the diagnosis according to the following microscopic description. H-E stining: Unencapsulated liver tumor which is well distinguished from the adjacent tissues. It is composed of the large vascular spaces resembling similar vascular structures in the penis. Erythrocytes and hemolyzed blood are seen in the lumina of these large vessels. The walls of these structures represent fibrous septi covered with one or two lines of endothelial cells.
Answer
  • cavernous hemangioma
  • capillary hemangioma
  • angiosarcoma
  • lymphangioma

Question 84

Question
Suggest the diagnosis according to the jV)llowing microscopic description: Il-E staining: Unencapsulated uterine tumor which is composed of the spindle cells arranged in bundles. These bundles cross in different directions, Slight tissue atypia is seen, presented by chaotic bundles of spindle cells
Answer
  • Ieiomyosarcoma uteri
  • Ieiomyoma uteri
  • endometrial carcinoma
  • endometrial sarcoma

Question 85

Question
Suggest the diagnosis according to the microscopic description. I-I-E staining: The tumor is composed of highly differentiated tissue elements from the three germinal cell layers -- mesodermal layer (connective tissue, collagen fibres, fatty tissue, cartilage and others), endodermal layer (glands) and ectodermal layer (skin, columnar epithelium, stratified squamous epithelium, brain substance). They create a variety of the morphological picture. There isn't any sign of cell atypia. Cystic changes are often seen.
Answer
  • teratocarcinoma
  • mature teratoma
  • dermoid cyst
  • pleomorphic adenoma

Question 86

Question
A resident in surgery is looking for a consultation with regard to a breast nodule in a young woman: can a morphological examination be done prior to surgery? How the specimen should be taken and in what fixative? Which are the other options for a routine examination? What addition morphological methods can be involved?
Answer
  • complete excision if the tumor is small in size and frozen section during surgery
  • incision biopsy if the tumor is bigger in size followed by frozen section during surgery
  • thin-needle biopsy followed by cytology examination
  • all of the listed above

Question 87

Question
The autopsy of a 65- year old patient, alcohol addicted with diabetes, emphysema and pneumonia revealed gross changes in the liver. It's enlarged and heavy (21 10g) with smooth surface and soft consistency. The cut surface is yellowbrown and the lobular structure is unclear. What is the diagnosis?
Answer
  • fatty degeneration
  • carbohydrate degeneration
  • protein degeneration
  • all the three are possible

Question 88

Question
The autopsy of a patient with pernicious anemia showed dilated right heart chamber. The myocardium is loose and pale. As a result of the hypoxia, the major changes are seen under the endocardium, mainly in the area of papillary muscles. What changes do you expect to see?
Answer
  • lipomatosis of the heart
  • carbohydrate degeneration of the heart
  • tiger heart/fatty degeneration of the heart
  • heart infarction

Question 89

Question
52-year old woman with medical history of tonsillitis, developed heart valve defect. She complained of cough, sometimes with rusty expectoration and difficulties in breathing when she is lying in bed. Auscultation revealed small moist noises in both lung bases. What is the cause for all these complains and clinical findings?
Answer
  • mitral valve stenosis
  • tricuspidal valve stenosis
  • aortic valve stenosis
  • aortic valve insufficiency

Question 90

Question
Body of a man with total cachexia is sent for an autopsy. The skin is darkbronze. The two suprarenal glands are entirely ruined by tuberculosis. Which is the disease?
Answer
  • Cohn's disease
  • Addison's disease
  • Cushing's syndrome
  • Waterhouse-Fridricksen's syndrome

Question 91

Question
Nodule measuring 2cm from the parotid gland of a 32 year old male patient was sent for the histological examination. Histological result showed jelly-like and at some areas chondroid substance which surrounds glandular structures and strands of flat cylindrical and spindle cells. Suggest the diagnosis.
Answer
  • adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland
  • acute syalodenitis
  • pleomorphic adenoma
  • mucinous carcinoma

Question 92

Question
Autopsy of a young man died 2 days after car accident reveals fracture of the femur and massive crush of the soft tissues. Lungs are normal in shape and size but with expressive hyperemia. The cut surface is shiny with minute droplets of the size of the head of a pin. Indicate the cause of death:
Answer
  • fat embolism
  • air embolism
  • thromboembolism
  • bacterial embolism

Question 93

Question
Autopsy of a patient with pernicious anemia shows dilated right ventricle with anemic infarction. On papillary muscles are detected yellowish stripes. What pathological finding is seen in this case?
Answer
  • hyperplasia of fat cells
  • „tiger heart" - fatty degeneration of cardiomyocites
  • lipomatosis
  • brown atrophy

Question 94

Question
A tumor from the left forearm in a 39-year old woman was resected. Grossly it is well circumscribed, with a diameter of 3 cm. On histology: tumor cells are spindleshaped, grouped in bundles, nuclei form palisade structures. Set the diagnosis:
Answer
  • fibroma
  • leiomyoma
  • myxoma
  • neurinoma

Question 95

Question
An autopsy of a 60-years all man revealed a thickened and soft wall of the stomach with indistinct layers. Cut surface showed presence of the dirty grayish -green pus-like material. What disease is this:
Answer
  • chronic gastritis
  • phlegmonous gastritis
  • acute gastric ulcer
  • chronic gastric ulcer

Question 96

Question
At an autopsy in the temporal lobe of the brain a cyst with a diameter of 2 cm, with smooth walls and clear pale yellow liquid was found .What can it be :
Answer
  • abscess of the brain
  • pseudocyst of the brain
  • tumor
  • encephalitis

Question 97

Question
A man of 68 years is complaining of severe pain in the muscles of the legs occurring when walking fast, which disappears after a short rest. Indicate the correct diagnosis:
Answer
  • varicose veins in the lower extremities
  • intermittent claudication
  • polio-encephalitis
  • popliteal vein thrombosis

Question 98

Question
A week after surgery for inguinal hernia at the site of operation appears a nodule. Microscopically there are macrophages, lymphocytes and lots of capillaries with scattered neutrophils. What is a diagnosed?
Answer
  • repair tissue
  • granulation tissue
  • tumor process
  • disorder of microcirculation

Question 99

Question
During an opera performance a singer suddenly lost consciousness and after a few hours died with the signs of hemorrhagic shock without clear source of bleeding. At the autopsy are found 2.5 L. blood in the abdomen from subcapsular rupture of an unencapsulatcd tumor formation in the liver, with spongy structure, cherry -red color and size - 15 x 15cm. Which are the causes of death?
Answer
  • ruptured cavernous hemangioma of the liver
  • mesenteric thrombosis and paralytic ileus
  • diffuse peritonitis due to hemorrhage
  • hemorrhagic shock due to blood loss

Question 100

Question
Left hemisphere of brain demonstrates a well circumscribed tumor with a diameter of 3cm, greyish- brown color and a thick consistency, attached to the dura mater. The underlying brain tissue shows a compression pit. Point the most likely macroscopic diagnosis:
Answer
  • meningioma
  • astrocytoma
  • neurinoma
  • medulloblastoma

Question 101

Question
On the plantar surface of a 35 year old woman there is a bluish-black tumor with lobulated uneven surface covered with bloody crusts. Histology shows epithelioid cells with different shapes and sizes with pigment granules in the cytoplasm. Infiltrative gro•vvth in respect to dermis and epidermis is present. Give a diagnosis:
Answer
  • nevus pigmentosus
  • efelides
  • melanoma malignum
  • basal cell carcinoma

Question 102

Question
At an autopsy in the upper area of the right lung are detected changes including two foci with stone-hard density. The cut-surface is whitish and is grinding like sand. How to explain the presence of these calcium salts?
Answer
  • calcium gout
  • deposits of uric acid crystals
  • degenerative calcification in old tuberculosis focus
  • metastatic calcification

Question 103

Question
68 year-old man complains of a face ulcer with thick edges and black base covered with brownish crusts. Histologically nests of round cells that form peripheral palisade structures are seen. Which is the correct diagnosis?
Answer
  • basal cell carcinoma
  • squamous cell carcinoma
  • malignant melanoma
  • nevus pigmentosus

Question 104

Question
A man of 62, smoker with obesity, treated in a dermatological clinic due to skin problems, dies suddenly after a severe chest pain . Clinicians set as the final diagnosis the skin disease for which he has been admitted to the hospital. At the autopsy a 3.5 cm clay-like area with irregular shape in the anterior wall of the left ventricle was seen. The descending left coronary artery was almost entirely occluded by atherosclerosis. What is the correct diagnosis?
Answer
  • rupture of the heart
  • myocardial infarction
  • acute heart failure
  • cerebral infarction

Question 105

Question
The autopsy of a 43 years old man reveals brain meninges covered by the thick yellowish exudate. Meningeal vessels are hyperemic, brain tissue is edematous. What is your diagnosis?
Answer
  • acute encephalitis
  • polio-encephalitis
  • cerebellar herniation
  • acute purulent meningitis

Question 106

Question
A 35 year old man felt his right parotid gland enlarged, with a nodule 2 cm in diameter, well demarcated and dense. Histology shows jelly-like structures and immature cartilage and between them glandular structures and strands of cubic. cylindrical cells and ducts. Specify the diagnosis:
Answer
  • pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland
  • adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland
  • myxoma of parotid gland
  • chondroma of parotid gland

Question 107

Question
During the autopsy in the temporal lobe of the brain is found a cyst 2cm in diameter, with smooth walls filled with a clear pale yellow liquid. Indicate what it is:
Answer
  • brain abscess
  • pseudocyst of the brain
  • tumor
  • encephalitis

Question 108

Question
At autopsy, in the abdominal cavity and on appendices epiploice, many "chalky" white spots are clearly seen. The finding is the same in the pancreas. Point the diagnosis:
Answer
  • steatonecrosis in acute pancreatitis
  • fibrino-purulent peritonitis
  • carcinomatosis of peritoneum
  • serous peritonitis

Question 109

Question
The autopsy of a young man died several hours after a car accident shows fracture of his left femur with massive smash of the soft tissues. The lungs are normal in shape and size, but intensively congested. Their cut surface is shiny and small droplets the size of a 'pin head' appear on it. Specify the cause of death:
Answer
  • fat embolism
  • air embolism
  • thromboembolism
  • bacterial embolism

Question 110

Question
69 year old male, who has suffered from varicose veins of the legs for 20 years, is admitted for surgical treatment. 15 days after surgery, when he suddenly rose up from bed, he felt sick, complained of severe shortness of breath, lost consciousness and died within a few minutes. Indicate the most likely cause of death:
Answer
  • mesenteric thrombosis
  • cerebral infarction
  • thromboembolism of pulmonary artery
  • myocardial infarction

Question 111

Question
28 year old woman a year ago felt a 'knot' in the breast 2 centimeters in diameter, well demarcated, painless, mobile, thick. Histology shows concentric connective tissue around the ducts of the breast without compressing and distortion of the ducts. Specify the exact histologic diagnosis:
Answer
  • adenocarcinoma
  • pericanalicular fibroadenoma
  • intracanalicular fibroadenoma
  • scirrous cancer

Question 112

Question
Bilateral on the skin of the eyelids are seen bulging above the level of the skin nodules yellow color with the size of rice grains. What is it?
Answer
  • deposition of hemosiderin
  • common mole
  • nevus
  • xantelasmas

Question 113

Question
The autopsy of a deceased patient shows swollen and very soft meninges of the temporal area with greyish-green color. Microscopic examination reveals that the meninges are rich of leukocytes. What illness is concerned:
Answer
  • purulent meningitis
  • brain abscess
  • tuberculous meningitis
  • encephalitis

Question 114

Question
The autopsy of an old man who died suddenly found complicated atherosclerotic plaques in the aorta, coronary and cerebral arteries. The heart is enlarged with dilated heart chambers. The right atrium shows brittle grey-brown material with uneven surface, close to the endocardium. The main trunk and two main branches of the pulmonary artery show 'saddle' grey-brown brittle material. Identify the immediate cause of death:
Answer
  • myocardial infarction
  • embolism of the pulmonary vein
  • thromboembolism of pulmonary artery
  • mesenteric thrombosis

Question 115

Question
39 year old female underwent surgery to remove a tumor from her left forearm. The tumor is 3cm in diameter, well demarcated and dense. Histology shows fusiform (spindle) cells which are grouped in bundles, with nuclei arranged in palisades ('fence wall' pattern). Set the diagnosis:
Answer
  • fibroma
  • mixoma
  • Ileiomyoma
  • neurinoma

Question 116

Question
39-year-old female has surgically removed tumor from her left forearm measuring 3 cm in diameter, well demarcated and dense. Histology shows fusiform (spindle) cells grouped in bundles, with palisading ('fence' type pattern) nuclei. Specify the diagnosis:
Answer
  • fibroma
  • Ileiomyoma
  • mixoma
  • neurinoma

Question 117

Question
At autopsy the stomach is with a large tumor with gelatinous appearance. Microscopically, the tumor cells show 'signet ring'-shaped appearance, in whose cytoplasm PAS reaction is positive. What type of degeneration is the pathological process associated the gelatinous appearance of tumor?
Answer
  • mucoid degeneration
  • hyaline degeneration
  • fatty degeneration
  • fibrinoid edema

Question 118

Question
At autopsy in the frontal lobe of the brain is found well visible and demarcated area with 3 cm in diameter, with gray-green color, well circumscribed from the surrounding tissue, filled with decaying substance. What illness is described?
Answer
  • purulent meningitis
  • encephalitis
  • chronic abscess
  • tuberculous meningitis

Question 119

Question
At autopsy, in the abdominal cavity and on appendices epiploice, many "chalky" white spots are clearly seen. The finding is the same in the pancreas. Point the diagnosis:
Answer
  • serous peritonitis
  • carcinomatosis of peritoneum
  • fibrino-purulent peritonitis
  • steatonecrosis in acute pancreatiti