Chemical components of cells

ale.w710
Mind Map by ale.w710, updated more than 1 year ago
ale.w710
Created by ale.w710 over 5 years ago
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UPAEP Mind Map about the chapter 2 of Alberts Team: Miroslava Duarte, Melissa Olivera, Daniela Walter

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Chemical components of cells
1 Cells are based completely on:
1.1 Carbon compunds Chemical reactions in aqueous solutions Complexity Polymeric molecules Strict regulation
1.1.1 Living organisms
1.1.1.1 Conformed of 96% of CHONSP
1.1.1.1.1 They are joined by more than a covalent bond
2 Chemical bonds
2.1 Matter: combination of elements
2.1.1 Atom: the smallest particle with chemical properties
2.1.1.1 Conformed by electrons, protons and neutrons
2.1.1.1.1 The sum of them is the atomic number
2.1.1.1.1.1 Electron: negative Proton: positive Neutron: neutral
2.1.1.1.1.2 Defines the characteristics of the atom
2.1.1.1.1.2.1 Ionic bonds
2.1.1.1.1.2.1.1 An atom gives up an electron to another atom
2.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1 Cation: positive Anion: negative
2.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 Electrostatic atraction: force of atraction betwen 2 atoms with opposite charges
2.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1 Interaction betwen ions and water defines solubility
2.1.1.1.1.2.2 Covalent bonds
2.1.1.1.1.2.2.1 Formed when 2 atoms share electrons
2.1.1.1.1.2.2.1.1 Molecule: group of atoms linked by a covalent bond
2.1.1.1.1.2.2.1.1.1 Bond length: cores separated by some distance. Balance between the forces of attraction and repulsion.
2.1.1.1.1.2.2.1.1.1.1 Simple: each atom shares an electron Double: Each atom shares 2 electrons. Intermediate: share electrons unequally
2.1.1.1.1.2.2.1.1.1.1.1 Polar Covalent Bond: formed by weak electrostatic interactions
3 The type of atoms that are part of cells
3.1 Isotopes: different neutron number but the same proton number
3.1.1 Atomic weight: mass of the atom relative to the mass of hydrogen
3.1.1.1 Measured in daltons
3.1.1.1.1 Avogadro's number: 6x10 ^23
3.1.1.1.1.1 Mol: number of molecules available for reactions.
3.1.1.1.1.1.1 electrons in living tissues suffer reordering
4 Outermost electrons determine interaction
4.1 Electronic orbital: limit of electrons in an orbital
4.1.1 Biological molecules don't use atoms with more of 4 orbitals
4.1.1.1 External orbital complete= stable
4.1.1.1.1 Living organisms: incomplete orbitals to form molecules
4.1.1.1.1.1 Periodic table: the result of ordering elements by similar properties
5 Bond strenght: amount of energy required to break a bond
5.1 Enzimes: specific catalysts that control reactions
5.1.1 Biology reactions depend on non covalent bonds
6 Water
6.1 70% cell weight Reactions occur in the aqueous medium
6.1.1 Hydrogen bonding: when an H binds to another molecule of water with the O
6.1.1.1 Molecules with polar bonds form hydrogen bonding and are soluble.
6.1.1.1.1 Hydrophilic: likes water Hydrophobic: hate water
6.1.1.1.1.1 Formation of acids and bases
6.1.1.1.1.1.1 Proton: When a molecule is dissolved in water and completely gives up its electron
6.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Hydronium ion (H3O-): H is associated and dissociated with the Oxygen
6.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Acids: substance that releases protons when is dissolved in water.
6.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Weak: slowly loses it proton Strong: quickly loses it proton
6.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Base: Substance capable of accepting protons [OH]
6.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1 pH scale: representation of hydronium ion concentration in a logarithmic scale
6.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1 Buffer: acid or base that releases or accepts protons near to a pH of 7.
7 Molecules of the Cell
7.1 Organic molecules
7.1.1 Mainly conformed by Carbon 30 atoms of Carbon each Forms chains and rings
7.1.1.1 Sintetized from the same component
7.1.1.1.1 4 important families
7.1.1.1.1.1 Sugars
7.1.1.1.1.1.1 Functions: Production and storage of energy Mechanicsupport
7.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Most important glucose
7.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Monosaccharide
7.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Simple form Glycosidic bond
7.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Formed by one -OH group from a sugar and other -OH by a condensation reaction
7.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Disaccharide
7.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1 2 monosaccharide
7.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3 Oligosaccharide
7.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.1 3 to 50 monosaccharide
7.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.1.1 Binded to proteins: glycoproteins
7.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.1.1.1 Binded to lipids: glycolipids
7.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.4 Polisaccharide
7.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.4.1 Over 50 monosaccharides
7.1.1.1.1.2 Fatty Acids
7.1.1.1.1.2.1 Two regions
7.1.1.1.1.2.1.1 Large hidrophobic chain of hydrocarbon Carboxilic group very reactive
7.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1 High storage of energy Composition of membranes
7.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 not soluble in water
7.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1 Triacilglycerol
7.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 3 chains of fatty acids binded to a glicerol molecule
7.1.1.1.1.3 Aminoacids
7.1.1.1.1.3.1 Carboxilic acid group + amin group
7.1.1.1.1.3.1.1 Cells use them to form proteins 3D structure
7.1.1.1.1.3.1.1.1 Peptiodic bond: union of 2 adyacent aminoacids. Polipeptide: chains of aminoacids
7.1.1.1.1.3.2 20 types in cells
7.1.1.1.1.3.2.1 5 of them hace electrical charge 20 don't have
7.1.1.1.1.3.2.1.1 2 forms D and L (proteíns)
7.1.1.1.1.4 Nucleotids
7.1.1.1.1.4.1 NUCLEOSIDE: Conformed by a nitrogen cyclic compound binded to a 5 carbon sugar
7.1.1.1.1.4.1.1 Nucleotide= Nucleoside + phosfate group
7.1.1.1.1.4.1.1.1 Ribonucleotids: contain ribose Desoxirribonucleotids: contain desoxiribose
7.1.1.1.1.4.1.1.1.1 DNA:A, G, C, T RNA: (A. G. C, T) transporter
7.1.1.1.1.4.2 pyrimidics: Citocyn, timin, and uracil
7.1.1.1.1.4.2.1 Purins: Guanine and adenine
7.1.1.1.1.4.3 Storage of genetic information
7.2 Inorganic molecules
7.2.1 The rest of the molecule including water
8 Macromolecules
8.1 Most important carbonated molecules
8.1.1 Polymers conformed by small organic molecules
8.1.1.1 Give the most important characteristics to living organisms
8.1.1.1.1 Polymers of aminoacids conform proteins
8.1.1.1.1.1 especific sequence of subunits
8.1.1.1.1.1.1 Conformed by the addition of a subunit in one of the sides.
8.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Non covalent bonds
8.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Allows the binding with other molecules
8.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Specificity
8.2 Proteins
8.2.1 Variety of functions
8.2.1.1 Enximatic Structural Movement
8.2.1.1.1 Enzimes: sintetize important molecules
8.2.1.1.1.1 Structural proteins such as tubulin
8.3 Bonds
8.3.1 Covalent bonds
8.3.1.1 Allows the differents shapes and structures
8.3.2 Ionic bonds
8.3.2.1 Strong but weak on water
8.3.3 Van der Waals forces
8.3.3.1 Atraction between big molecules
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