RESPIRATION

Keane Teo
Mind Map by Keane Teo, updated more than 1 year ago
Keane Teo
Created by Keane Teo almost 5 years ago
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Mindmap about respiration in humans

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RESPIRATION
1 AEROBIC RESPIRATION
1.1 Complete breakdown of glucose in the presence of oxygen to release a large amount of energy in the form of ATP molecules which are used to drive other chemical reactions in cytoplasm and nucleus Carbon dioxide and water are waste products
1.1.1 C6H12O6+6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy
1.1.1.1 Some energy released as heat energy to keep warm
1.1.1.2 38 molecules of ATP built when one molecule of glucose is completely oxidised to carbon dioxide and water
1.1.1.2.1 ATP readily breaks down to adenosine diphosphate in presence of appropriate enzyme
1.1.1.2.1.1 Releases energy and phosphate ion which is used to drive other chemical reactions
1.2 Glycolysis in cytosol
1.3 Krebs Cycle
1.3.1
1.4 Electron Transport Chains
1.4.1 Mitochondira
1.4.1.1 Main site of ATP production in aerobic respiration
1.4.1.2 Cylinder/Rod Shaped
1.4.1.3 Double Membrane
1.4.1.3.1 Separated by inter membrane space
1.4.1.3.2 Outer Membrane is a smooth continuous boundary
1.4.1.3.3 Inner membrane folded extensively to form cristae which project into semi fluid matrix
1.4.1.4 Contain circular DNA and 70S ribosomes like bacteria
1.4.1.4.1 Once free living bacteria that were ingested by ancestral eukaryotic cell and stable symbiotic relationship was established
2 ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION
2.1 Energy Released from food by breaking it down chemically but reactions do not use oxygen although carbon dioxide is often produced
2.1.1 C6H12O6 --> 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + Energy
2.2 Muscles
2.2.1 During exercise, person starts panting and heart beats faster
2.2.1.1 Remove carbon dioxide and take in more oxygen at a higher rate ; oxygen brought to muscles faster
2.2.1.2 Limit on rate of breathing and heartbeat reached so oxygen may not be delivered to muscle cells fast enough to meet demands of aerobic respiration
2.2.1.2.1 Pyruvic acid buildup exceeds its oxidation to carbon dioxide and water using oxygen
2.2.1.2.1.1 Pyruvic acid converted to lactic acid by enzyme called lactate dehydrogenase
2.2.1.2.1.1.1 Small amount of energy released in the form of ATP
2.2.1.2.1.1.1.1 2 molecules of ATP produced for every glucose molecule used
2.2.1.2.1.1.2 After exercise, lactic acid from anaerobic respiration removed
2.2.1.2.1.1.2.1 Lactic acid diffuses from muscles to bloodstream, carrying it to the liver
2.2.1.2.1.1.2.1.1 Lactic acid converted to pyruvic acid by enzyme lactate dehydrogenase
2.2.1.2.1.1.2.1.1.1 Some pyruvic acid oxidized to form carbon dioxide and water
2.2.1.2.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 Release energy in the form of ATP molecules
2.2.1.2.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1 Energy used to convert pyruvic acid to glucose
2.2.1.2.1.1.2.1.1.2
2.2.1.2.1.1.2.2 Creates oxygen debt
2.2.1.2.1.1.2.2.1
2.2.1.2.1.1.2.2.1.1 Oxygen deficit
2.2.1.2.1.1.2.2.1.1.1 Amount of oxygen needed but not supplied from outside of body by breathing
2.2.1.2.1.1.2.2.1.2 3dm3 of oxygen per min must be supplied to meet energy demands of exercise aerobically, but not achieved until 6 min after exercise began
2.2.1.2.1.1.2.2.1.2.1 During lag time, oxygen reserves used
2.2.1.2.1.1.2.2.1.2.1.1 Oxygen in myoglobin in muscles
2.2.1.2.1.1.2.2.1.2.1.2 Muscle tissues hold ATP in the form of creatine phosphate
2.2.1.2.1.1.2.2.1.3 Oxygen debt
2.2.1.2.1.1.2.2.1.3.1 Extra amount of oxygen after exercise, when rate of oxygen uptake is not resting requirement of 0.25dm3 per min yet
2.2.1.2.1.1.2.2.1.3.1.1 Used to remove lactic acid from anaerobic respiration
2.2.1.2.1.1.2.3 Causes muscle fatigue
2.2.2 Glucose --> Pyruvic Acid/Pyruvate --> Carbon Dioxide + Water
3 HUMAN GAS EXCHANGE SYSTEM
3.1 Passage of Air
3.1.1 Air enters body through tw external nostrils which lead to two nasal passages
3.1.1.1 Nostrils bear a fringe of hair to trap dust and foreign particles
3.1.1.1.1 Air warmed and moistened so harmful chemicals are detected by sensory cells in mucous membrane
3.1.1.2 Mucus on mucous membrane also traps dust and foreign particles
3.1.1.2.1
3.1.1.3 Air passes through internal nares into pharynx
3.1.1.3.1 Air passes into larynx then into trachea through glottis
3.1.1.3.1.1 Epiglottis at the top of trachea stops food and drink from entering air passages when we swallow
3.1.1.3.1.2 Divides into two tubes called the bronchi
3.1.1.3.1.2.1 Right bronchus divides into three bronchial tubes
3.1.1.3.1.2.1.1
3.1.1.3.1.2.2 Left bronchus divides into two bronchial tubes
3.1.1.3.1.2.2.1 Divide into bronchioles
3.1.1.3.1.2.2.1.1
3.1.1.3.1.2.2.1.2 Alveoli
3.1.1.3.1.2.2.1.2.1 Thin, moist and well supplied with blood capillaries
3.1.1.3.1.2.2.1.2.1.1 Blood capillaries transport oxygen away from lungs and carbon dioxide to lungs
3.1.1.3.1.2.2.1.2.1.1.1 Maintains large difference in concentration of gases between blood and alveolus
3.1.1.3.1.2.2.1.2.1.1.1.1 Maintains steep diffusion gradient for gases
3.1.1.3.1.2.2.1.2.2 Gaseous exchange takes place through walls of alveoli
3.1.1.3.1.2.2.1.2.2.1 Wall is made up of one layer of flattened cells and endothelium of capillary also one cell thick so that the diffusion distance is short
3.1.1.3.1.2.2.1.2.3 Thousands of alveoli in each lung
3.1.1.3.1.2.2.1.2.3.1 Provides large surface area for gaseous exchange
3.1.1.3.1.2.2.1.2.4 Inner surface of alveoli coated with film of moisture
3.1.1.3.1.2.2.1.2.4.1 Oxygen dissolves, facilitating diffusion
3.1.1.3.1.2.2.1.2.4.2 Some moisture evaporates into alveoli and saturates air with water vapour
3.1.1.3.1.2.2.1.2.5 Epithelial cells of alveoli secrete surfactants
3.1.1.3.1.2.2.1.2.5.1 Disrupt cohesive forces between water molecules
3.1.1.3.1.2.2.1.2.5.1.1 Lowers surface tension of fluid lining alveoli
3.1.1.3.1.2.2.1.2.5.1.1.1 Increases resistance of lung to stretch
3.1.1.3.1.2.2.1.2.6 Diagram
3.1.1.3.1.2.3
3.1.1.3.1.3 Supported by C shaped rings of cartilage to prevent them from collapsing when we breathe in
3.1.1.3.1.4 Epithelium
3.1.1.3.1.4.1 Gland cells
3.1.1.3.1.4.1.1 Secrete mucus to trap dust particles and bacteria
3.1.1.3.1.4.2 Ciliated cells
3.1.1.3.1.4.2.1 Bear cilia to sweep particles up bronchi an trachea into pharynx
3.1.2 Pleura membrane lies in the thoracic cavity
3.1.2.1 Thin layer of lubricating fluid between pleura allows membranes to glide over each other easily
3.1.3 Chest wall supported by ribs
3.1.3.1 External and internal intercostal muscles found between ribs
3.2 BREATHING
3.2.1 Inspiration
3.2.1.1 External intercostal muscles contract, internal intercostal muscles relax
3.2.1.1.1 Rib cage pulled up and out
3.2.1.1.1.1 Volume of thoracic cavity increased
3.2.1.1.1.1.1 Air pressure in lungs reduced below atmospheric pressure
3.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Air enters lungs, inflating alveoli till pressure in lungs is equal of atmosphere
3.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Lung capacity and breathing rate
3.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Tidal air is the volume of air inhaled and exhaled during resting breathing pattern
3.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Complemental air or inspiratory reserve volume is additional volume of air that can be taken in when taking a deep breath
3.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1
3.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3 Supplemental air or expiratory reserve volume is the additional volume of air that is forced out by the most powerful expiratory effort after normal expiration
3.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3.1 1500cn3
3.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.4 Vital capacity is volume of air expelled by most vigorous expiratory effort after deepest inspiration
3.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.5 Residual air is volume of air in lungs after strongest expiration
3.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.6 Breathing rate about 16 per min at rest and 20 to 30 breaths per min during exercise
3.2.1.2 Diaphragm muscles contract and flattens
3.2.1.2.1
3.2.2 Expiration
3.2.2.1 External intercoastal muscles relax, internal intercoastal muscles contract
3.2.2.1.1
3.2.2.2 Diaphragm relaxes and becomes dome shaped
3.2.2.2.1 Volume of thoracic cavity decreases
3.2.2.2.1.1 Air pressure in lungs raised above atmospheric pressure
3.2.2.2.1.1.1 Air forced out of lungs till air pressure in lungs is equal to that of atmosphere
3.2.2.2.1.1.1.1
3.3 TRANSPORT OF GASES
3.3.1 Transport of oxygen
3.3.1.1 Oxygen combines with haemoglobin in red blood cells to form oxyhaemoglobin in lungs where oxygen concentration is high
3.3.1.1.1 Oxygen released when blood passes through oxygen poor tissues
3.3.1.1.1.1 Oxygen diffuses through walls of blood capillaries into cells
3.3.2 Transport of carbon dioxide
3.3.2.1 Carbon dioxide produced by tissues diffuses into bloodstream
3.3.2.1.1 Passes into red blood cells
3.3.2.1.1.1 Combines with water to form carbonic acid
3.3.2.1.1.1.1 Co2 + H2O <--> H2CO3 <--> H + HCO3
3.3.2.1.1.1.2 Catalysed by carbonic anhydrase
3.3.2.1.1.1.3 Carbonic acid dissociates
3.3.2.1.1.1.3.1 Hydrogen ions
3.3.2.1.1.1.3.1.1 Displace oxygen from haemoglobin
3.3.2.1.1.1.3.1.1.1 Forms HHb
3.3.2.1.1.1.3.2 Hydrogencarbonate ions
3.3.2.1.1.1.3.2.1 Diffuse out into plasma along concentration gradient
3.3.2.1.1.1.3.2.1.1 Combine with sodium in plasma
3.3.2.1.1.1.3.2.1.1.1 Forms sodium hydrogencarbbonate
3.3.2.1.1.1.3.2.1.1.2 Loss of hydrogencarbonate ions balanced by chloride ions diffusing into red blood cells from plasma
3.3.2.1.1.1.3.2.1.1.3 Red blood cells reach lungs and carbon dioxide is released
3.3.2.1.1.1.3.2.1.1.3.1 Reverse process occurs
4 EFFECTS OF SMOKING
4.1 Nicotine
4.1.1 Addictive drug that stimulates and dulls the brain and senses
4.1.2 Causes vasocontriction and release of adrenaline
4.1.2.1 Increases heart rate and blood pressure
4.1.3 Causes blood to clot easily
4.1.3.1 Increasing risk of blood clots blocking blood vessels
4.2 Carbon monoxide
4.2.1 Binds with high affinity to haemoglobin
4.2.1.1 Forms carboxyhaemoglobin
4.2.1.1.1 Reduces efficiency of red blood cells to transport oxygen
4.2.2 Increases rate of fatty substances deposited on inner wall of artery by damaging lining
4.2.2.1 Increases risk of atherosclerosis
4.2.3 Stimulates attachment of blood platelets to surface of damaged endotheliium
4.2.3.1 Causes blood clotting and blocking blood vessels
4.3 Tar
4.3.1 Sticky brown substance that accumulates in lungs
4.3.1.1 Contains carcinogenic chemicals
4.3.1.1.1 Induce epithelial cells of lungs to divide uncontrollably
4.3.1.1.1.1 Forms lumps of tissue that block off air sacs
4.3.1.1.1.1.1 Reduces efficiency of gaseous exchange
4.3.1.2 Stimulates excess mucus production
4.3.1.2.1 Prevents removal of dust particles
4.3.1.2.1.1 Blocks bronchiole
4.3.1.3 Stops cilia from beating
4.3.1.3.1
4.4 Diseases
4.4.1 Chronic bronchitis
4.4.1.1 Inflammation of lining of air passages
4.4.1.1.1 Excess mucus produced by goblet cells
4.4.1.1.1.1 Cilia paralysed
4.4.1.1.1.1.1 Mucus not swept up air passages
4.4.1.1.1.2 Coughed up as thick greenish yellow sputum
4.4.1.1.1.2.1 Damages epithelium and increases risk of infection and inflammation
4.4.1.1.2 Narrowed airways
4.4.1.1.2.1 Reduced gaseous exchange
4.4.1.1.2.1.1 Breathlessness
4.4.1.2 Caused by tar
4.4.2 Emphysema
4.4.2.1 Inflammation of lining of air passages
4.4.2.1.1 Attracts phagocytes
4.4.2.1.1.1 Release elastase
4.4.2.1.1.1.1 Destroys elastin in alveolar walls
4.4.2.1.1.1.1.1 Breakdown of walls of alveoli
4.4.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Air spaces become larger
4.4.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Total surface area for gaseous exchange decreases
4.4.2.2 Heavy coughing
4.4.2.2.1 Bursts weakened alveoli
4.4.3 Heart diseases
4.4.3.1 Induces atherosclerosis
4.4.3.1.1 Decreases ability to remove blood clots that build up at atheromatous plaques
4.4.3.2 Carbon monoxide
4.4.3.2.1 Toxic to endothelium and thin lining of blood vessels
4.4.3.2.1.1 Damages lining
4.4.3.2.1.1.1 Cholesterol penetrates easier
4.4.3.2.2 Combines with haemoglobin
4.4.3.2.2.1 Reduces oxygen transport by 15%
4.4.3.2.2.1.1 Causes angina
4.4.3.2.2.1.1.1 Heart attack
4.4.3.3 Nicotine
4.4.3.3.1
4.4.4 Lung cancer
4.4.4.1 Tar contains chemicals causing cancer
4.4.4.1.1 Irritation causes thickening of epithelium by extra cell division
4.4.4.1.1.1 Uncontrolled cell division
4.4.4.1.1.1.1 Cancer
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