CT

thashali.anthony
Mind Map by thashali.anthony, updated more than 1 year ago
thashali.anthony
Created by thashali.anthony over 6 years ago
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Description

Flow Chart for CT Lectures

Resource summary

CT

Annotations:

  • N.B. tissues = cells + cell products CT = mostly cell products
  1. CELLS

    Annotations:

    • fixed cells primarily function locally i.e. fibroblasts, fixed macrophages, adipocytes, mast cells  wandering cells increase w/ # of tissue damage or infection i.e. monocytes, lymphocytes, microphages (neutrophils & eosionphils)
    1. undifferentiated mesenchymal cell

      Annotations:

      • multipotential stem cells
      1. osteoblast
        1. osteocyte
        2. endothelial cell
          1. mesothelial cell
            1. fibroblast

              Annotations:

              • - produces fibres, proteoglycans & glycoproteins of the matrix - abundant RER, well-developed Golgi - oval nucleus - pale in active fibroblasts - darker in quiescent "fibrocytes"
              1. adipocyte

                Annotations:

                • - lipid storing cells - "signet ring" shape w/ thin rim of cytoplasm & flattened nucleus surrounding large droplet of stored lipid - lipid extraction during preparation makes the cell appear empty  - when adipocytes predominate in certain areas, tissue is referred to as adipose 
                1. chondroblast
                  1. chondrocyte
                  2. hematopoietic stem cell
                    1. WBC; leukocytes

                      Annotations:

                      • - carried in the circulation but function in CT - an increased number in connective sisue is indicative of inflammation
                      1. neutrophil

                        Annotations:

                        • drawn by chemotactic signals
                        1. eosinophil

                          Annotations:

                          • drawn by chemotactic signals
                          1. basophil
                          2. mast cell

                            Annotations:

                            • - store chemical mediators of inflammation & hypersensitivity rxns - oval cells w/ granular cytoplasm + round, central nucleus - granules are metachromatic i.e. certain stains that bind with the granules change their colour e.g. toluidine blue stains the granules purple/magenta - activated by trauma or by presence of antigen - become sensitized to specific antigens when antibodies made against that antigen become bound to receptors on the mast cell membranes activated mast cells immediately release:  1. Histamine: vasodilation increases blood flow, increased vascular permeability (esp. post-capillary venules) increases production of protein-rich tissue fluid and slows blood flow 2. NCF attracts neutrophils 3. ECF attracts eosinophils
                            1. megakaryocyte
                              1. monocyte
                                1. macrophage

                                  Annotations:

                                  • - derived from blood monocytes - mature in tissue spaces - can proliferate locally - avidly phagocytic cells - antigen presenting cells - relatively small & inconspicious unless they have been active in phagocytosis - are the Kuppfer cells in the liver, microglial cells of fthe CNS, Langerhands cells of the skin, osteoclasts of bone tissue
                                  1. osteoclast
                                  2. RBC; reticulocytes
                                    1. B lymphocyte

                                      Annotations:

                                      • become antibody-producing plasma cells with antigen exposure
                                      1. plasma cell

                                        Annotations:

                                        • - derived from B-lymphocytes - antibody-producing - relatively small, round cells with basophilic cytoplasm (filled with RER) - round, eccentric nucleus, like a "clock face" i.e. prominent nucleolus and clumps of peripheral heterochromatin - juxtanuclear Golgi forms pale "halo" around nucleus
                                2. MATRIX
                                  1. FIBRES
                                    1. COLLAGEN FIBRES
                                      1. Structure
                                        1. inelastic protein w/ tensile strength
                                          1. >20 types of collagen, based on a-chain AA sequence
                                            1. collagen synthesis = multistep proccess

                                              Annotations:

                                              • - prepcollagen - procollagen - tropocollagen - fibrils - fibres
                                            2. Biosynthesis
                                              1. forms mRNA for each ɑ chain in nucleus
                                                1. ɑ chains synthesized into preprocollagen
                                                  1. post-translational modification
                                                    1. assembled into procollagen triple helix with registration peptides on amino- & carboxyl- ends
                                                      1. Registration Peptides

                                                        Annotations:

                                                        • maintain solubility of procollagen
                                                        1. soluble procollagen transferred to golgi
                                                          1. post-transational modification AGAIN
                                                            1. packaged to vesicles & transported to cell surface
                                                              1. membrane-bound procollagen peptidases remove peptides from collagen forming tropcollagen
                                                                1. Tropcollagen

                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                  • tropocollagen molecules aggregate to form collagen fibrils, covalent cross-links b/w tropocollagen molecules reinforce fibrilar structure 
                                                2. regionally distributed
                                                  1. Type I

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    • most common, CT proper, bone
                                                    1. Type II

                                                      Annotations:

                                                      • cartilages
                                                      1. Type III

                                                        Annotations:

                                                        • forms "reticular fibres"
                                                        1. very fine fibres
                                                          1. forms the stroma (scaffolding) of highly cellular organs on which they arrange their parenchyma (functional cells)
                                                          2. Type IV

                                                            Annotations:

                                                            • forms the meshwork in the BM
                                                            1. Type VII

                                                              Annotations:

                                                              • forms anchoring fibrils
                                                              1. Anchoring Fibrils

                                                                Annotations:

                                                                • bind the BM to underlying type 1 & type III collagen
                                                          3. ELASTIC FIBRES
                                                            1. stretches to 1.5x resting length, recoils; found in certain ligaments, walls of larger BVs
                                                              1. composed of elastin embedded in microfibrils composed of fibrillin
                                                            2. GROUND SUBSTANCE

                                                              Annotations:

                                                              • consistency varies from liquid to solid; gel-like substance in which cells & fibres are embedded
                                                              1. TISSUE FLUID
                                                                1. continual exchange of water + solutes b/w components of ECF: plasma, ISF & lymph
                                                                  1. summed P determines overall direction of fluid movement @ any point along vessels
                                                                    1. hydrostatic pressure

                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                      • synonymous with blood pressure, pushes fluid out of BVs N.B. lowest hydrostatic pressure is found within lymphatic vessels so excess interstitial fluid becomes lymph
                                                                      1. osmotic pressure

                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                        • fluid pulled into blood vessels b/c of plasma proteins
                                                                      2. edema

                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                        • excess tissue fluid
                                                                        1. reduced lymphatic clearance
                                                                          1. reduced venous clearance
                                                                            1. excess production
                                                                              1. disruption of normal gradients of hydrostatic or osmotic Ps blood or fluid
                                                                          2. ORGANIC MOLECULES
                                                                            1. PROTEOGLYCANS
                                                                              1. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)

                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                • inflexible unbranched polysaccharides composed of repeating disaccharide units
                                                                                1. intensely hydrophilic, imparts viscous, slippery texture to GS
                                                                                  1. chemistry tissue-specific
                                                                                    1. most link to a core protein
                                                                                      1. proteoglycan

                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                        • responsible for.. gel-like consistency of matrix; turgidity & ability of CT to resist compression; molecular filter of varying pore size, charge distribution; slow diffusion of substances, cells, pathogens through ISF.
                                                                                        1. links with hyaluronic acid forming aggrecan
                                                                                  2. ADHESIVE GLYCOPROTEINS

                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                    • inc, fibronectin, laminin
                                                                                    1. binding sites for collagen, GAGs & integrins of the cell membranes
                                                                                      1. Integrins

                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                        • transmembrane link glycoproteins (recall hemidesmosomes)
                                                                                  3. functions
                                                                                    1. resists compression, withstands tensile forces
                                                                                      1. medium for molecular diffusion btw plasma & ICF
                                                                                        1. adhesion for tissue components
                                                                                    2. Mesenchyme
                                                                                      1. CT proper
                                                                                        1. loose CT
                                                                                          1. reticular CT

                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                            • e.g. liver, kidneys, lymph nodes, smooth muscle & bone marrow
                                                                                            1. delicate reticular fibres
                                                                                              1. forms the stroma (scaffolding) on which they arrange their parenchyma (functional cells)
                                                                                              2. adipose tissue

                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                • abundant deep to skin,  behind eyes, around kidneys
                                                                                                1. amount + distribution varies w/ age, sex, activity level; mostly adipocytes by volume
                                                                                                2. areolar CT

                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                  • e.g. superficial fascia, b/w muscles, BVs, Ns, around joints
                                                                                                  1. defence against pathogens
                                                                                                    1. support + allows independent movement
                                                                                                      1. least specialized, all cell & fibre types, mostly GS by volume
                                                                                                    2. dense CT
                                                                                                      1. dense regular CT

                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                        • largely collagen type I fibres arranged in parallel arrays thus imparts tensile strength in 1 direction e.g. tendons, aponeuroses, ligaments
                                                                                                        1. dense irregular CT

                                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                                          • largely collagen type I fibres arranged in a meshwork sheet thus imparts tensile strength in >1 direction e.g. reticular layer of dermis, periosteum, perichondrium, organ capsules, joint capsules, submucosa of GI tract
                                                                                                          1. elastic tissue

                                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                                            • high concentration of elastic fibres = high resiliency (stretch + recoil); certain ligaments e.g. ligamentum flavum, supporting transitional epithelium, blood vessels 
                                                                                                        2. supporting CT
                                                                                                          1. bone
                                                                                                            1. cartilage
                                                                                                              1. hyaline

                                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                                • e.g. articular cartilage, tracheal rings, costal cartilage, immature skeleton, nasal cartilages 
                                                                                                                1. characteristics

                                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                                  • most common & weakest cartilage, closely packed collagen type II fibrils in a firm gel-like GS
                                                                                                                  1. function

                                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                                    • resists compression, provides touch, flexible support; reduces friction b/w bony surfaces in articulations
                                                                                                                  2. elastic

                                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                                    • e.g. pinna of external ear, epiglottis, pharyngotympanic tube
                                                                                                                    1. characteristics

                                                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                                                      • like hyaline but w/ a higher proportion of elastic fibres
                                                                                                                      1. function

                                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                                        • provides greater flexibility and resiliency i.e. "bounces back"
                                                                                                                      2. fibrocartilage

                                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                                        • anulus fibrosis of intervertebral disks, pubic symphysis, intra-articular disks, tendon & ligament insertions
                                                                                                                        1. characteristics

                                                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                                                          • little ground substance, high proportion of density interwoven collagen type I fibres arranged in perpendicular arrays, intermediate in strength b/w hyaline caartilage & densse regular CT; chondrocytes arranged in rows b/w bundles of collagen type I fibres
                                                                                                                          1. function

                                                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                                                            • resists both compression + tension
                                                                                                                          2. matrix defined
                                                                                                                            1. characteristics

                                                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                                                              • EC matrix abundant, firm, gel-like, resilient, smooth all types are avascular, no lymphatic vessels, no nerves thus chondrocytes metabolize glucose mainly by anaerobic glycolysis; nourished by diffusion through the GS from vessels in the surrounding perichondrium and/or ordinary CT
                                                                                                                              1. function

                                                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                                                • gives structure to soft tissues in development & growth of long bones (covered under bone)
                                                                                                                                1. Pericondrium

                                                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                                                  • most cartilages surrounded by perichondrium (dense & irregular CT which has BVs, Ns, Ls)
                                                                                                                                  1. inner cellular layer

                                                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                                                    • contains chondroblasts: synthesize the organic components of the matrix; contributes to cartilage growth and thus less prominence with maturity
                                                                                                                                    1. outer fibrous layer

                                                                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                                                                      • contains mainly collagen fibres, fibroblasts
                                                                                                                                      1. cartilage growth & attachment
                                                                                                                                      2. Formation of Cartilage

                                                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                                                        • A. cartilage develops from condensations of embryonic mesenchyme B. mesenchymal cells diifferentiate into chondroblasts which secrete the organic components of the matrix C. chondroblasts ultimately surround themselves with matrix thus becoming isolated in their lacunae D. these chondroblasts may divide thus causing the cartilage to grow from within in a process called intersittial growth  N.B. isolated chondroblasts become quiescent, maintain matrix as chondrocytes. 
                                                                                                                                        1. Interstitial Growth

                                                                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                                                                          • the cartilage expands from within as chrondrocytes in the matrix divide, grow, and produce new matrix; chrondrocyte undergoes division within a lacuna surrounded by cartilage matrix, as daughter cells secrete additional matrix, they move apart, expanding the cartilage from within
                                                                                                                                          1. Appositional Growth

                                                                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                                                                            • - mesenchymal cells at the surface of the newly formed cartilage differentiate into fibroblasts which form the fibrous layer of the perichondrium;  - mesenchymal cells deep in the fibrous layer differentiate into chondroblasts forming the cellular layer of the perichondrium; - these cells secrete matrix onto the surface of the newly formed cartilage in a process called appositional growth
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