18.104.22.168 Climate change in the Coral Triangle is already having a big impact on
coastal ecosystems by warming, acidifying and rising seas. Coral
Triangle reefs have experienced severe mass coral bleaching and
mortality events as temperatures have periodically soared.
22.214.171.124 The annual, maximum and minimum temperatures of the
oceans surrounding the coastal areas of the Coral Triangle are
warming significantly (0.09-0.12 ° C per decade) and are
projected to increase by 1-4°C toward the end of this century.
126.96.36.199.1 Increases of more than 2°C will eliminate
most coral-dominated reef systems.
188.8.131.52 120 million: people directly sustained by the marine
and coastal resources of the Coral Triangle.
184.108.40.206 US$2.4 billion: sustainable fisheries benefit for
all of Southeast Asia from coral reefs.
220.127.116.11 US$12 billion: size of the Coral Triangle
nature-based tourism industry.
18.104.22.168 30% of the global tuna catch, and a lucrative trade in live reef
fish for food markets, which is worth nearly $1bn (£655m).
1.1.2 Acidic seas will drive reef collapse
1.1.3 Longer and more intense floods and droughts
1.1.4 Sea level rise of 0.5, 1.0 or 6 metres
1.1.5 More intense cyclones and typhoons
1.1.6 The 1997-98 El Niño weather event triggered the largest worldwide
coral bleaching event ever recorded. In Southeast Asia, an estimated
18% of the region's coral reefs were damaged or destroyed.
1.2 Shifts in climate zones will stress
biomes; migration patterns will be
altered; some biomes (tundra,
montane forest) may be wiped out.
1.3 Loss of habitats such as melting
Arctic Ice resulting in the loss of
some species such as the polar bear.
2.1 A widespread and complex problem, some
10-20% of dryland ecosystems are already
degraded; grasslands are very vulnerable.
2.2.1 Policies leading to an unsustainable use of resources
and the lack of adequate infrastructures are major
contributors to land degradation.
2.2.2 People farming by containing their livestock, such
as cattle, in fenced areas results in overgrazing.
2.2.3 Farmers are clearing average land, and using it
which takes away the richness in the soil.
22.214.171.124 Disrupts the nutrient cycle.
2.2.4 People are cutting down tress to use
them as a source of fuel. Once all these
trees are cut down there is nothing to
protect the soil. Therefore, it turns to
dust and is blown away by the wind.
2.2.5 Incorrect irrigation is
commonly used in poorer
areas. Farmers are using
canal irrigation and other
poor techniques because of
the lack of water. This type
of irrigation causes a build
up of salt in the soil.
2.3.1 The soil can be blown away by wind or washed
away rain. Nutrients in the soil can be removed
by wind or water. Salt can build up in the soil
which makes it harder for plant growth.
2.3.2 Loosened soil may bury plants or leave their
roots exposed. Also, when overgrazing
occurs, plant species may be lost.
2.3.3 Places that have war and poverty are most
likely to have famine occur. Drought and poor
land management contribute to famine.
2.3.4 Desertification can cause flooding, poor water
quality, dust storms, and pollution. All of these
effects can hurt people living near an affected region.
2.4 The Sahel
2.4.1 Around the 1950’s, people
settled into the Sahel region, in
areas where there was water.
This resulted in overgrazing.
126.96.36.199 A lot of the topsoil was washed away, and all
that was left were rocks. Silt turned hard
when it was hit by rain. Therefore, plants
were not able to grow because there roots
could not penetrate this hard layer.
188.8.131.52.1 Records show that rainfall in Sahel has decreased and
sands have shifted about sixty miles south into the area.
Sahel is expanding due to lack of vegetation in the area.
184.108.40.206.1.1 Another reason desertification is occurring in
the Sahel region is because people are using the
slashing and burning method to clear land. This
degrades the quality of soil just like overgrazing.
220.127.116.11 Long term
18.104.22.168.1 People die of starvation
22.214.171.124.2 Cattle die of starvation
126.96.36.199.3 The soil becomes completely useless
188.8.131.52 Short term
184.108.40.206.1 Soil loses its nutrients
which makes it not useful
220.127.116.11.2 Overgrazing destroys
vegetation and without
it erosion occurs
18.104.22.168.3 Land becomes salty
which makes it difficult
to grow crops.
3 Poverty and Food insecurity.
3.1.1 Poor countries cannot afford to
use advanced methods of
harvesting ecosystems resulting
in unnecessary damage.
3.1.2 The livelihoods of more than
one billion people depend
directly on natural resources.
22.214.171.124 Results in over use
3.1.3 Lack of enforcement to
126.96.36.199 The Amazon is an example of an
ecosystem which is too expensive for
the local enforcement groups to protect.
3.1.4 Inability to fund conservation
especially for endemic species.
3.1.5 High population of
3.2 Food insecurity
3.2.1 People over harvesting the ecosystems
resulting in loss of species.
3.2.2 Land used for agriculture, usually
only one type of crop, low biodiversity.