Going Global: KEY WORDS

Joanna Griffith
Flashcards by Joanna Griffith, updated more than 1 year ago
Joanna Griffith
Created by Joanna Griffith about 6 years ago
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Description

A series of key words directly taken from the 'Going Global' section of the Edexcel AS Geography textbook.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Birth rate the number of births per 1000 people per year in a region
Death rate the number of deaths per 1000 people per year in a region
Economic migrant a migrant whose primary motivation is to seek employment. Some may already have a job but may just be looking for a better job quality (i.e. work hours, pay or even a career change)
Internal migration the movement of people between regions within the same nation e.g. rural to urban migration due to more economic opportunities in the city
Intervening obstacle a barrier to a migrant such as a political border or physical feature, can include family pressures and travel costs
Intervening opportunity an alternative migration destination that exists between the migrants origin and intended destination
Natural increase the difference between the birth and death rate. More deaths than births = natural decrease More births than deaths = natural increase
Structural adjustment programmes strict conditions imposed on countries receiving loans from the IMF and the World Bank. Receiving governments may be required to cut back on healthcare, education, sanitation, and housing programmes
Elite a group of people who are economically and socially powerful e.g. Bill Gates
Foreign direct investment a financial injection made by a TNC into a nation’s economy, either to build new facilities or to acquire a merge with an existing firm there
Rural-urban migration a movement of population from rural to urban areas, usually a young and male-dominated migration
Development gap the difference in levels of economic and social well-being between the richest and poorest people on the planet
Gross domestic product a measure of the financial value of the goods and services produced within a territory (including foreign firms located there). It is often divided by population size to produce a per capita figure for the purpose of making comparisons
Human development index a United Nations measure of economic and social envelopment that takes into account income per capita, life expectancy and adult literacy
Poverty a lack of wealth. Absolute poverty describes income levels below what is needed to maintain an adequate diet. Relative poverty describes income levels that are below average for a region
Petrodollars money derived from selling oil. Since the formation of OPEC, states sucha s Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE, including Dubai) and Venezuela have experienced significant increases in levels of national wealth
Spatial division of labour the common practice among large firms of moving low-skilled work abroad (or ‘offshore’) to places where labour costs are low, establishing factories and call centers in poorer countries. Important skilled jobs (e.g. management and research) are retained at the firm’s headquarters in its country of origin
Assembly industries manufacturing operations that take the products of many different industries and fit them together to make finished goods
Transnational corporation a company that has operations in more than one country
Branch plant a factory built in a country by a TNC which has headquarters elsewhere
Consumption the purchase and use of commodities (both food and goods) as well as services. Even landscapes can be commodified and consumed (if one pays to visit them)
Glocalisation the local sourcing of parts by TNCs in places where they assemble their (global products’ close to markets. At the same time, they are able to customize their products to meet local tastes or laws
Parent company the original business that a global TNC has developed around, and whose directors still make decisions that affect the organisation as a whole. For instance, the Walt Disney Company owns several television networks, animation studios (such as Pixar) and 11 theme parks
Tertiary sector also known as the service sector, this consists of businesses that produce no physical product. Instead, they sell the products of manufacturing or agricultural industries, or offer a service such as education or tourism
Minimum wage an hourly wage set by a nation’s government that all companies must pay to their employees. The UK has a national minimum wage of more than £5 per hour, but most poorer countries have no such rules
Core the most developed and highly populated region of a country. The growth of core regions is fed by flows of labour from less well-developed regions
Switched-on places nations, regions or cities that are strongly connected to other places through the production and consumption of goods and services. In contrast, places that are poorly connected are said to be relatively switched off
Wilderness an area of the planet that has remained relatively untouched by human activity and is home to only small numbers of indigenous people (eg. the Amazon and Antarctica)
Shrinking world thanks to technology, distant places start to feel closer and take less time to reach (sometimes called time-space compression)
Cluster a geographical concentrated group of connected industries and institutions, including films, financial backers
Cumulative causation a model that explains why wealth becomes concentrated in certain places
Export processing zone a small industrial area, often on the coast, where favourable conditions are created to try and attract TNCs. These conditions may include low tax rates and exemption from tariffs and export duties
Global hub a settlement (or wider region) providing a focal point for activities that have a global influence
Human resources the abilities and potential of the human population in terms of their educational levels, their skills, the languages they speak and their capacity to innovate and invent, making them the "ultimate resource"
Multiplier effect the positive spin-offs that follow an initial investment in a region
Natural resources materials found in the environment that humans have the technological ability and desire to use. These change over time as technology develops
Technopole a cluster of technologically innovative businesses and research institutes, eg. Silicon Valley
Trickle-down the positive impacts on peripheral regions (and poorer people) of the creation of wealth in core regions
Genealogy the study of family history
Greying population a population structure in which the proportion of people aged 65 and over is high and rising. This is caused by increasing life expectancy and can be further exaggerated by low birth rates
Age-selective migration a movement of a particular age group or gender
Extended family members of the family beyond the core of parents and children
Social mobility the movement of individuals between different levels of social hierarchy, usually measured occupationally
Baby boom a brief increase in the birth rate
Secularisation a general decline in the significance of religious beliefs. A secular society is one that is more likely to be tolerant of abortion and use of contraception
Displaced persons people who are forced to move, by war, famine, political persecution or natural disaster
Illegal migrants people who avoid border and immigration controls and enter a new country illegally. Many are voluntary migrants seeking work, but some may be forced as part of human trafficking to enter prostitution or other illegal activities
Voluntary migrants people who move for quality of life reasons, usually economic gain
Net migration the balance between the number of people immigrating and emigrating
Slum an urban settlement in which, according to the United Nations, over 50% of inhabitants lack one or more of the following: durable housing, sufficient living area, improved water supply, access to sanitation and secure tenure (ownership). Areas of slum housing built from waste materials are called shanty towns, and if they are illegally occupying land, squatter settlements
Megacity an urban area with a population of over 10 million
World city a city with major economic and political power, eg. New York, Paris
Urban growth the growth in physical size of a city
Urban sprawl when urban areas grow outwards, usually uncontrollably, onto surrounding land
Suburbanisation when the wealthy choose to live on the city edge to escape the poverty, crime, congestion and pollution of the city centre
Counter-urbanisation the movement of people out of cities and into rural areas
Externalities the range of benefits and costs generated by economic activity that are not fully accounted for in the price-and-market system of economics, and need to be accounted for separately. Pollution is a prime example of a negative externality, while rising literacy is a positive externality
Global shift the global-scaled relocation of different types of industrial activity, especially manufacturing industries. As well as redrawing the world economic map, global shift has brought social, political and environmental changes to nations
Deindustrialisation the decline of regionally important manufacturing industries. It can be charted in terms of workforce numbers or output and production measures
Post-industrial economy replacement of traditional manufacturing or mining employment by an employment structure focused on services and technology (the tertiary and quaternary sectors)
Purchasing power parity a measure of average wealth that takes into account the cost of a typical ‘basket of goods’ in a country. In low-income countries, goods often cost less, meaning that wages go further than might be expected
Quaternary sector the component of a country’s employment structure that includes research, information management and financial management. Quaternary activities span computing, bioresearch, defence industries and new media, among others
Ecological footprint a measurement of the area of land or water required to provide a person (or society) with the energy, food and resources they consume and the waste they consume
Carbon footprint the amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere as a result of the activities of a particular individual, organization, or community
Food miles the distance food travels from a farm to a consumer
Dependency when a nation relies for income on outside sources and has only weak control of its own economic future
Ethical purchase a financial exchange where the consumer has considered the social and environmental costs of production of the food, goods or services purchased
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