King Henry II and the restoration of royal authority- the use of castles

georgina.lewis
Mind Map by georgina.lewis, updated more than 1 year ago
georgina.lewis
Created by georgina.lewis over 4 years ago
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Mind Map on King Henry II and the restoration of royal authority- the use of castles, created by georgina.lewis on 10/09/2015.

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King Henry II and the restoration of royal authority- the use of castles
1 King
1.1 All Royal Castles to be surrendered
1.1.1 1154- 49 castles under royal control, 225 in the hands of barons
1.1.1.1 1214- 179 baronial castles to 93 royal castles
1.1.2 Stephens reign/ the landscape before Henry came to power
1.1.2.1 Barons took over royal castles of built their own.
1.1.2.1.1 This took money and power from the crown
1.1.3 E.g William of Aumale, earl of York, refused to give up Scarborough Castle . Both the castle and earldom were now forfeit
1.2 £21,000 spent on castle works (recorded int he pipe rolls of his reign) £6,500 spent on Dover castle alone
1.2.1 Renovation of castles from wood to stone
2 Purser
2.1 used rivalries between barons and his undisputed title as King to re-take royal castles
2.2 Faced opposition from the Earls of York, Hereford and Wigmore.
2.2.1 December 1154-, marched against William of York, both himself and Roger of Hereford surrendered
2.2.2 Laid siege to to Hugh of Wigmore's castles, took the castles and Hugh submitted in front of others in July
2.3 Self- imposed exile of Henry of Blois, Bishop of Winchester and brother to Henry's predecessor. He virtually ruled Hampshire and in his absence his castles were demolished
3 Huscroft
3.1 1157 confiscates castles of Stephen's sons, count William of Boulogne, and of Hugh Bigod
3.2 1155 issues the surrender of all royal lands
3.2.1 William of Aumale refuses to give up Scarborough castle
3.2.2 On the Welsh border, Roger of Hereford and Hugh Mortimor offer initial resistance
3.3 1157 Earls of Suffolk and Norfolk surrender their castles
3.4 1176 took all castles into royal custody for a time
3.5 Spent £46,00 between 1155 and 1215, an average of £760 annually
3.6 1154 1 in 5 castles royal, 1214- 1 in 2
3.7 1165 allows Hugh Bigod to take back two castles, but builds a large castle nearby worth £1400 in Orford to remind Hugh who had 'the ultimate power in the Kingdom
4 Carpenter
4.1 Before 1154 royal castles given away
4.1.1 Destroys the unlicensed castles created by Stephen
4.1.2 Geoffrey de Mandeville, earl of Essex, castle seized in 1157 but made to be one of Henry's judges at a later period
4.2 Took the royal castle of Bridgnorth from Hugh de Mortimor
4.3 Denied Walter, brother of Robert of Hereford, succession to the earldom and royal castles of Glouchester and Hereford
4.4 1157 William, Stephens son, forced to surrender castle of Norwhich and Pevensey, eye and Lancaster - a breach of the Treaty of Winchester
4.5 King Malcolm surrenders all possessions in the North of England- breaking the the promises made to King David in 1147
4.6 Retained thirty castles he obtained in 1155, helping to convert 225 baronial and 49 royal castles to 179 baronial and 93 royal. A ration of 5:! to 2:!
4.7 £21,000 spent on castle building, average of £650 a year
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