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Software

Description

GCSE Computing (Mind Maps) Mind Map on Software, created by Harry Barrett on 10/15/2015.
Harry Barrett
Mind Map by Harry Barrett, updated more than 1 year ago
Harry Barrett
Created by Harry Barrett over 6 years ago
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Resource summary

Software
  1. Software Types
    1. System Software
      1. The System Software is the Operating System, drivers and utility programs
      2. Application Software
        1. The Application Software is the software that we use e.g. Microsoft Word, MS Paint, Microsoft Publisher
      3. User Interface
        1. A user interface is the software that enables somebody to give instructions to a computer or device e.g. Mobile Phone, Macintosh OS
          1. The User Interface tends to be part of the operating system
        2. Management
          1. Memory
            1. One of the most vital resources that the operating system needs to manage is memory.
              1. The amount of memory that you have in your computer is limited. And so, like any limited resource, it needs to be managed. This is the task of the memory manager which is part of the operating system.
                1. As you start using an application, the operating system will load extra modules into memory as they are required. If you don't use some of the features of the application for a while, the operating system will remove them from memory to try to free up space.
                  1. While you are doing your work, your data will be stored in memory. When you have finished your task and closed the application, the operating system will remove it from memory.
            2. Peripheral (Hardware)
              1. A computer is a mix of hardware and software. Software has to interact with the hardware in order to receive data from input devices and to send its result to output devices.
                1. Every piece of hardware comes with software called a 'device driver', for example, the printer will have a print driver, a mouse will have its own mouse driver. A device driver acts as the go-between for other software to 'talk' to the hardware.
                  1. For instance a word-processor will send text and images to a printer by sending instructions and data through the printer's device driver. A music player will send music to the sound card by means of the sound card's device driver and so on.
                    1. Most device drivers are loaded into memory by the operating system during booting. But some are loaded by the operating system when a piece of hardware is connected to the computer. For instance inserting a memory stick will cause the operating system to load the right USB driver and a message appears telling you that the device is ready to use.
              2. Utility Program Types
                1. Security
                  1. Antivirus
                    1. A computer virus is a program that is designed to copy itself over and over again and to attach itself to other programs.
                      1. Viruses do not damage the hardware. They affect the data and programs stored on the computer.
                    2. Spyware Protection
                      1. Spyware is software, that once installed on your computer, can monitor and collect information about your web surfing habits and the web pages that you visit.
                        1. Spyware is normally harmless but it can interfere with your control of the computer. It can install additional software which redirects the web browser to sites that it wants you to visit. It can also change the computer settings which can result in slow connection speeds and it can prevent you from accessing secure internet services.
                          1. Key loggers are a form of spyware. The purpose of a key logger is to monitor and store a record of every keystroke made on the computer. This data may then be sent to a remote server without your knowledge. It is specifically looking for user names and passwords used for things such as bank accounts, credit card numbers etc.
                        2. Firewalls
                          1. A firewall is a utility program or hardware device that filters the information coming through the Internet connection into your computer or into a company's network. Its main aim is to try to stop any attempts by intruders to enter your system through the internet connection.
                        3. Disk Organisation
                          1. Formatting
                            1. Disk formatting is the initial part of the process for preparing a hard disk or other storage medium for its first use.
                              1. As part of the disk formatting process 'partitions' are created. These are what you or I know as 'drives'. A disk might be partitioned into multiple drives, for example, C:, D:, E:, S: etc.
                                1. Each partition or drive will have a different purpose. C: might be where the application files are stored. D: might be the drive used for external storage media, e.g. USB stick, S: might be the shared drive on your school network.
                            2. Defragmentation (Defragging)
                              1. When you try to run an application, a large number of files often need to be accessed. Instead of always being stored next to each other on the hard disk platters, the files can become scattered, sometimes ending up at opposite ends of the disk. The hard disk then has a lot of work to do in order to locate everything that is needed to run your application.
                              2. File Transfer
                                1. One of the basic things you need to be able to do is to create, move, copy and delete files on the computer system.
                                  1. If you were to use a command line ui to do this, you would type the instructions directly into MSDOS. For example, the command for copying a file looks like C:> copy myfile.txt newfile.txt
                              3. System Maintenance
                                1. System Information and Diagnosis
                                  1. By using a 'system information' utility. The operating system keeps a record of all the hardware and details of the operating system such as make, clock speed, number of processors, version numbers and so on.
                                    1. This is very useful for people when they need to know the details of the system, perhaps to see if an application they are considering getting will be compatible.
                                  2. System Cleanup Tools
                                    1. Over time parts of the system can become cluttered with old installation details, temporary files, dead shortcuts, etc.
                                      1. A good disk cleanup tool will search for and delete files which are no longer needed. One of the benefits of doing this is that large amounts of storage space is released. This can then be used for other programs or files.
                                        1. A system cleanup tool will search the computer for settings which are no longer needed or for programs which are slowing down the computer. Running this utility regularly can help to improve the performance and speed up the boot-up time so that the computer starts up much faster.
                                    2. Automatic Updating
                                      1. Automatic Updating Software is software that automatically searches the internet for updated versions or patches for critical software such as the operating system or the web browser.
                                        1. If an update is found, it will be automatically downloaded and installed and you will be prompted to restart your machine in order to apply the patch.
                                          1. Automatic updates help to ensure that your system is protected from possible threats or security loopholes that could be exploited by malicious programs or people in order to gain access to your system. Automatic updates can also be applied to fix any known software bugs in the system.
                                  3. Security
                                    1. Key Terms/Ideas
                                      1. Multi-tasking Operating System
                                        1. Personal computers can multi-task very well, especially for the type of things that most of us want to do.
                                          1. For example, reading emails, writing letters, working on spreadsheets, listening to music, surfing the web and watching videos.
                                            1. However, there comes a time when only a *really* powerful computer will do the job in hand.
                                              1. Reasons to use a Multitasking Operating System: -You are an engineer or scientist and want to run a very complicated simulation -You are a weather scientist and want run a forecast -You are a financial person and want to work on thousands of stock market share movements -You work in a bank and want to handle customer accounts. -You are an architect and want to see your full design -You work at an University as an academic along with hundreds of other academics -You are a film animator and want to work in 3D
                                                1. Most personal computers can't handle these kind of tasks. Instead, a mainframe or supercomputer is required for this kind of work.
                                                  1. But a supercomputer or mainframe costs millions to buy and maintain. There is no way that such an expensive machine could be used by just a single person.
                                                    1. To make it economic, this computer has to be shared. This means it needs a multi-user operating system which means more than one user is logged on and can use the computer at the same time.
                                          2. Single User Operating System
                                            1. This type of operating system only has to deal with one person at a time, running one user application at a time.
                                              1. An example of a this kind of operating system would be found on a mobile phone. There can only be one user using the mobile and that person is only using one of its applications at a time.
                                            2. Functions of the operating system
                                              1. Providing a user interface
                                                1. Managing the computer's memory
                                                  1. Managing the hardware
                                                2. OS Interfaces
                                                  1. Command line
                                                    1. A Command Line Interface allows the user to interact directly with the computer system by typing in commands.
                                                      1. You cannot just type in any kind of instruction, because the computer will only react to a definite set of words.
                                                    2. GUI
                                                      1. A GUI provides you with the functionality to create and manage the windows that you use on your screen. It also provides you with features such as icons on your desktop, buttons and scrollbars.
                                                      2. Voice Input
                                                      3. Glory ------>
                                                        1. Get it? I'm on the edge of glory
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