Development of the concept of occupation & occupational science

Vanessa  Tempest
Mind Map by Vanessa Tempest, updated more than 1 year ago
Vanessa  Tempest
Created by Vanessa Tempest about 5 years ago
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Moral Treatment Movement (19th C) Mental health Constant employment & routine ‘Give a man constant employment, treat him with uniform kindness and respect, and, however insane he may be, very little may be feared from him, either of mischief or indolence’ (Peloquin 1989, p. 540)

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Development of the concept of occupation & occupational science
1 1800s - Moral Treatment Movement
1.1 Constant employment & routine
1.1.1 ‘Give a man constant employment, treat him with uniform kindness and respect, and, however insane he may be, very little may be feared from him, either of mischief or indolence’ (Peloquin 1989, p. 540)
2 1880s - 1930s - Arts & Crafts Movement
2.1 Sole or small group production of objects (rather than mass production) gives meaning
3 1920s - Adolph Meyer
3.1 Importance on how time is spent (occupied). Work can lead to self-respect. Environment & daily life affects a person’s mental well-being.
4 1960s - Mary Reilly
4.1 Call for return to focus on occupation. ‘man through the use of his hands, as they are energized by his mind and will, can influence the state of his own health.’
5 1980s onwards
5.1 Anne Cronin Mosey
5.1.1 OCCUPATIONAL SCIENCE
5.1.1.1 OCCUPATIONAL SCIENCE should be separate from Occupational Therapy
5.1.1.1.1 Occupational Science should concentrate on theory development through basic scientific research & not practical application
5.1.1.1.2 Occupational Therapy should concentrate on testing and refinement of frames of reference (over-arching collection of theories) through applied research (i.e. practical application)
5.1.1.1.2.1 Suitable theoretical information from numerous other disciplines should be used to support occupational practice
5.1.1.1.3 To avoid confusion over what was theory and what was profession & to ensure research was appropriately focussed
5.1.2 OCCUPATION
5.1.2.1 Individuals have inherent needs for work, play & rest
5.1.2.2 Participation in major social roles is OCCUPATIONAL PERFORMANCE
5.1.2.3 Individuals are socially & culturally influenced
5.1.2.4 Individuals reach their potential through purposeful interaction with the human & non-human environment
5.1.2.5 OCCUPATION is a factor that is influenced by PERFORMANCE COMPONENTS & OCCUPATIONAL PERFORMANCE of an individual
5.1.2.6 Cognitive, psychological & social skills are PERFORMANCE COMPONENTS & are fundamental to these social roles
5.1.2.7 Individuals seek equilibrium
5.1.2.8 Humans adapt actions & behaviours based on their psychological & physical circumstance & their environment
5.2 Florence Clark
5.2.1 OCCUPATIONAL SCIENCE
5.2.1.1 OCCUPATIONAL SCIENCE should be allied to Occupational Therapy
5.2.1.1.1 Occupational Science is 'an academic discipline, the purpose of which is to generate knowledge about the form, the function and the meaning of human occupation'
5.2.1.1.1.1 OCCUAPATIONAL SCIENCE has a unique focus which cannot be fully investigated by scholars from other disciplines, although it can benefit from knowledge from other disciplines
5.2.1.1.1.1.1 Occupation can be explored through subjective and qualitative approaches as well as experimental & objective means
5.2.2 OCCUPATION
5.2.2.1 Occupation is 'chunks of culturally & personally meaningful activity in which humans engage that can be named in the lexicon of our culture'
5.2.2.2 Occupations are embedded in human lives, taking on different meanings dependant on context & cutlure
5.2.2.3 '....occupation must be studied within the context of both the immediate environment & the person's history....'
5.2.2.4 '.....occupation is fired by the person's drive for efficacy & competency....'
5.2.2.5 '....occupation cannot be fully understood without consideration of its significane to the individual...
5.2.2.6 Occupation includes work, rest, leisure & play
5.3 1993 Journal of Occupational Science
5.4 Elizabeth Yerxa
5.4.1 OCCUPATIONAL SCIENCE
5.4.1.1 Coined term ‘OCCUPATIONAL SCIENCE’ (PhD 1989)
5.4.1.2 ‘OCCUPATIONAL SCIENCE’ is 'the study of the human need as an occupational being including the need for and capacity to engage in and orchestrate daily occupations in the environment over a lifespan'.
5.4.1.3 Occupational science seen as a basic science - i.e. one that dealt with 'universal issues about occupation without concern for their immediate application'
5.4.2 OCCUPATION
5.4.2.1 Occupations - work, play, rest, leisure & other necessary occupations
5.4.2.2 Occupations - culturally & socially influenced
5.4.2.3 Humans adapt to environment by performing occupations
5.4.2.4 Occupations define who we are, are performed & organised by an individual & are goal-directed
5.4.2.5 Occupations are not instinctually carried out; they are chosen
5.4.2.6 Experience of performing occupations, affects perception of quality of life
6 1917 est. of National Society for the Promotion of Occupational Therapy
6.1 Initial objectives included '....the study of the effects of occupation upon the human being & the dissemintation of scientific knowlege on this subject' (Dunton et al 1917)
7 OCCUPATIONAL SCIENCE
7.1 Concept of occupation is the focus of the enquiry
7.2 Issue - knowledge generation which from the outset is concerned how knowledge can be used by practitioners vs. knowledge generation without guidance on how to use in practice
7.3 Understanding humans as occupational beings / explicating the relationship between occupation & health
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