The Circulatory System

Hannah Vernon-Browne
Mind Map by Hannah Vernon-Browne, updated more than 1 year ago
Hannah Vernon-Browne
Created by Hannah Vernon-Browne over 6 years ago


AS - Level Biology (Topic 1 - Lifestyle, Health & Risk) Mind Map on The Circulatory System, created by Hannah Vernon-Browne on 10/18/2015.

Resource summary

The Circulatory System
  1. Blood Flow
    1. Vena Cava
      1. Right Atrium
        1. Right Ventricle
          1. Pulmonary Artery
            1. Lungs
              1. Pulmonary Vein
                1. Left Atrium
                  1. Left Ventricle
                    1. Aorta
                      1. Rest of the Body
                        1. Vena Cava
                  2. This is the only vein to have oxygenated blood
                2. This is the only artery to have deoxygenated blood
          2. Red = oxygentated blood
            1. Blue = deoxygenated blood
              1. Purple = diffusion of oxygen
              2. Blood Vessels
                1. Arteries
                  1. Narrow lumen
                    1. Maintains high pressure
                    2. Thicker Walls
                      1. To be able to cope with higher pressure
                      2. More collagen
                        1. Collagen is a tough, fibrous protein in the arterial walls that makes them strong & durable
                        2. Smooth Muscle Cells
                          1. Allow them to constrict & dilate
                          2. Elastic Fibres
                            1. Allow it to stretch & recoil
                            2. No Valves
                              1. The blood is of a high pressure and constantly being pushed forwards, so there is no need to use valves to prevent backflow
                            3. Veins
                              1. Wide Lumen
                                1. This allows more blood flow at the lower pressure of the veins
                                2. Thinner Walls
                                  1. There is a lower pressure
                                  2. Less Collagen
                                    1. They are under lower pressure
                                    2. Less Smooth Muscle Cells
                                      1. The veins do not need to be able to stretch and recoil as much
                                      2. Fewer Elastic Fibres
                                        1. They are under low pressure so require less elastic fibres
                                        2. Valves
                                          1. Prevent backflow due to low pressure
                                        3. Capillaries
                                          1. Found in muscles & lungs
                                            1. Supply oxygen
                                              1. Take away Carbon Dioxide
                                              2. Thin walls - 1 cell thick
                                                1. Access to every cell in the body
                                                2. Very low blood pressure
                                                  1. The thin walls can't cope with higher pressure
                                                  2. Gas exchange occurs here
                                                    1. Supply substances to every cell in the body
                                                3. Labelled Heart Diagram
                                                  1. The aorta is an artery that carries oxygenated blood around the body
                                                    1. The pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs
                                                      1. The left atrium contracts to pump oxygenated blood into the left ventricle
                                                        1. The pulmonary vein carries oxygenated blood into the left atrium
                                                          1. The semi-lunar valves stop backflow of blood from the aorta and pulmonary artery back into the ventricles
                                                            1. The left ventricle contracts to pump oxygenated blood into the aorta
                                                              1. The heart wall has 3 layers:
                                                                1. Epicardium
                                                                  1. External layer
                                                                    1. Attached to pericardium (membrane surrounding heart)
                                                                      1. Thin & transparent
                                                                        1. Made of delicate connective tissue
                                                                      2. Mycocardium
                                                                        1. Middle layer
                                                                          1. Responsible for pumping action
                                                                            1. Made out of cardiac muscle
                                                                          2. Endocardium
                                                                            1. Inner layer
                                                                              1. Thin layer endothelium
                                                                                1. Provide smooth lining for chambers & covers valves
                                                                              2. The right ventricle contracts to pump deoxygenated blood into the pulmonary atrtery
                                                                                1. The atrioventricular valves (tricuspid/bicuspid) prevent backflow of bloof back into the atria
                                                                                  1. The inferior vena cava is a vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower region of the body to the right atrium
                                                                                    1. The right atrium contracts to pump deoxygenated blood into the right ventricle
                                                                                      1. The superior vena cava is a vein that carries blood from the top region of the body to the right atrium
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