Polysaccharides

Jessica Phillips
Mind Map by Jessica Phillips, updated more than 1 year ago
Jessica Phillips
Created by Jessica Phillips over 6 years ago
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A Levels Biology (Biology Unit 2) Mind Map on Polysaccharides, created by Jessica Phillips on 05/22/2015.

Resource summary

Polysaccharides
  1. Starch
    1. The main energy storage material in plants
      1. Cells get energy from glucose
        1. Plants store excess glucose as starch
          1. When a plant needs more glucose for energy it breaks down starch to release the glucose
        2. Starch is a mixture of two polysaccharides of alpha-glucose
          1. Amylose
            1. A long, unbranched chain of alpha-glucose
              1. The angles of the glycosidic bonds give it a coiled structure
                1. This makes it compact
                  1. Good for storage because you can fit more into a small space
              2. Amylopectin
                1. A long, branched chain of alpha glucose
                  1. Its side branches allow enzymes that break down the molecule to get at the glycosidic bonds easily
                    1. This means glucose can be released quickly
                2. Starch is insoluble in water, so it doesn't cause water to enter the cell by osmosis
                  1. Will cause them to swell
                    1. This makes it good for storage
                  2. Glycogen
                    1. The main energy storage material in animals
                      1. Animals cells get energy from glucose
                        1. Animals store excess glucose as glycogen
                          1. A polysaccharide of alpha-glucose
                        2. Structure is similar to amylopectin
                          1. Glycogen has more side branches
                            1. Stored glucose can be released quickly
                              1. Important for energy release in animals
                          2. Very compact molecule
                            1. Good for storage
                          3. Cellulose
                            1. The major component of cell walls in plants
                              1. Long, unbranched chains of beta-glucose
                                1. The bonds between sugars are straight
                                  1. Cellulose chains are straight
                                  2. Cellulose chains linked together by hydrogen bonds to form strong fibres called microfibrils
                                    1. Strong fibres mean cellulose provides structural support for cells
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