Right realism

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Mind Map by omorphos, updated more than 1 year ago
omorphos
Created by omorphos about 6 years ago
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Right realism
  1. Building blocks of right realism
    1. Originated in the 1970's, particularly by James Q. Wilson, and Ernst van den Haag (1975)
      1. It developed as a critique of sociological theory which had failed to solve the problem of crime.
        1. The basis of Right Realism is a negative view of human nature, and suggests that people are naturally selfish and greedy.
      2. Solutions to crime
        1. Rational choice theory
          1. Developed by Clarke and Coleman (1980)
            1. The theory argues that criminals will engage in crime if the benefits outweigh the costs.
              1. Increase the costs of crime (increase the likelihood of being caught and tougher punishments).
            2. Crime control should also fall upon members of the community. For example, neighbourhood watch.
              1. This involves responsible parenting and 'active citizens' who challenge anti-social behaviour
              2. Tough punishment: heavy fines, sentences and advocation of corporal (physical) and capital punishment.
              3. Theories to crime
                1. With increased rates of affluence, crime rates have soared.
                  1. Key factors to crime increase - Lack of discipline in education, decline in the traditional family
                    1. Rising crime levels reflects ineffective and inadequate social control. Permissive attitudes allow self-indulgent and anti-social behaviour.
                      1. Feckless parenting (lacking initiative), absent fathers, lack of discipline in schools, and liberal policies of the state have all served to begin to ferment crime, and leading to incivilities.
                        1. The non-traditional family, especially single mothers, is viewed as a major factor
                          1. Lack of discipline in schools, a mass media that glamorises deviance and crime and the decline in the influence of religious values are other important contributory factors.
                      2. Also known as the new right
                        1. James Q. Wilson and the 'Broken Window Thesis'
                          1. "Unless ‘incivilities’ (litter, graffiti, noise levels, vandalism, etc.) are kept minimal, then wider anti-social behaviour and more serious crimes will follow"
                            1. He advocates that the police adopt a policy of ‘zero-tolerance’ for even minor crimes (as tried by the Mayor of New York).
                              1. This reflects Emile Durkheim’s idea that local informal controls are crucial for law and order and A.H. Bottoms’ concept of the ‘tipping’ of problem housing estates.
                              2. James Q. Wilson (1975)
                                1. Wilson argues that there are three key factors affecting long time crime.
                                  1. 1. Number of young males (typical deviants).
                                    1. 2. Cost/benefits of crime: Rational choice theory
                                      1. 3. Inadequate socialisation into norms and values.
                                        1. To deal with this he advocates target hardening of deviant groups and areas through pro-active policing.
                                          1. Right Realists blame crime on inadequate or inappropriate socialisation by key socialisation agencies in society.
                                  2. Charles Murray
                                    1. He argues the underclass are particularly insufficiently integrated into society’s norms and values. He calls the deviant subcultural values of the underclass as ‘paternalism’.
                                      1. He views the underclass as prone to: criminal tendencies, violence, illegitimacy and promiscuity, educational failure and welfare dependency.
                                      2. Van den Haag (1975)
                                        1. He adopts a very poor view of humanity as willing to cheat to ‘get on’ and therefore some groups need to be controlled for their own good and that of society.
                                          1. Therefore, he argues, it is reasonable for law and order agencies to target the poor
                                          2. He advocates a tough penal system of punishment: corporal and capital.
                                            1. Like Durkheim, he sees punishment as functional, acting as a deterrent.
                                            2. Critique of Right realism
                                              1. It is influential on Government policy in both the USA and the UK
                                                1. For example 'zero tolerance' has succesfully been adopted as a policy in New York
                                                2. Some argue it is a lack of investment in deprived areas rather than incivilities tat cause crime
                                                  1. Another argument is that where zero tolerance is introduced, this simply shifts crime to other areas.
                                                    1. It is easy to pick on scapegoats, such as single parent families.
                                                      1. Marxists argue that concentration on minor offences means that more serious crime gets ignored by the authorities.
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