1 AIMS- reduce unemployment and to make Germany self-sufficient (ready for war->Autarky) Were
they successful? -> Initially successful - Schacht was minister of the economy, his 'new plan' was
successful. Imports went down, production went up b 50% and Germany traded goods for raw
materials (eg coal, oil) 1937 onwards -> failure - Goring had a 4 year plan to prepare Germany for
war. Needed guns, tanks, planes, submarines etc. This is called Rearmament. Made weapons but:
failed in becoming self sufficent eg for fuel, clothing and were food shortages and rationing.
2 UNEMPLOYMENT - Aim - to reduce unemployment from 6 million
in 1933. By 1939, unemployment was down to 1/2 million. How?
2.1 Job Creation Schemes - Built a network
of motorways known as Autobahns,
covering 7000 km, invested money in the
car industry, invested in private firms, built
huge public buildings for example an
Olympic stadium for the 1936 Olympics.
2.2 Invisible Unemployment - Jews lost their jobs, Women were forced to leave
their jobs to marry, opponents of Nazism eg communists, Unemployment
figures did not include a number of groups who lost their jobs or those without
proper jobs, unmarried men were forced to serve 6 months in the national
labour service (under 25), people with no jobs but didn't count in the figures are
2.3 RAD/National Labour Service - made compulsory to all
men aged 16 to 25, general labour, men built autobahns
and costal walls and also drained marshes for farming,
workers paid very low wages and had to put up with
uncomfortable tented camps, long hours and boring jobs.
2.4 Rearmament and the armed forces -
allies didn't reduce army figures,
people worked in new factories making
weapons and more jobs as more
money is being spent building
3 Workers better off under Nazi rule: Young people who could work quicker and
higher wages. Worse off: Older people who worked slower, longer hours,
inflation meant that workers could not afford more goods, food shortages.
4 Nazi methods to control workers and keep them happy... 1) The Labour Front -
DAF (replaced workers unions, encouraged team spirit, represented workers in
discussions with employers, achieved little.) Ran/Organised: A) Strength
through Joy - Events to keep workers happy eg sport, holidays and cruises,
concerts, theatre performances, weekend trips. B) The Beauty of Labour -
Another scheme to keep workers happy. It: built canteens for workers, swimming
pools/ sports facilities, better factories (less noise) BUT workers were expected
to make these improvements themselves. C) Volkswagen (Peoples car) -
Workers contributed 5 marks per week for their car BUT none were delivered.
5 IMPROVEMENTS: The beauty of Labour department improved working conditions, Workers
enjoyed the activities offered through the strength of joy movement, Job creation schemes ensured
most people had jobs, average weekly wage rose and there was lots of activities provided for
workers. WORSE OFF: Many of the jobs were not proper jobs: it was forced labour and workers had
no choice, if they refused to work they got no benefits, Few workers could afford the more
expensive activities offered through the strength of joy scheme, Industrial accidents and illness
rose by 150% in the period 1933-39, The activites provided for the workers were just bribes to make
workers do as they were told and the cost of living rose and cancelled out the increase in wages.
6 Farmers - Better prices, loans cancelled but struggled to find labour eg at harvest,
Shopkeepers/small businesses - better off, Nazis limited the number of large
department stores, Big businesses - benefitted, no trade unions to challenge them,
big profits especially in armament factories. Managers wages went up 70% in 4 years.