Mind Map by drenae20, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by drenae20 about 6 years ago


Psychology exam

Resource summary

  1. Development of Stereotypes
    1. Thin ideal preferences appear to be established between 5-6 years
      1. By 3 years old children learn negative stereotypes about overweight individuals (Latner & Schwartz, 2005)
        1. This bias appears to intensify during teenage years, then possibly diminish slightly
          1. In boys, attributing negative characteristics to larger figures and positive characteristics to thinner figures were associated with fathers having more negative attitudes towards obese persons. In girls, attributing positive characteristics to thinner figures was only associated with greater maternal dietary restraint.
          2. The Biology of Energy Storage
            1. Energy storage is biologically adaptive
              1. Differences between males and females in energy storage needs.
              2. Main Health Risks of Obesity
                1. Cardiovascular disease
                  1. Diabetes
                    1. Sleep apnea
                      1. Osteo-arthritis
                        1. Gall bladder stones
                          1. Cancer of the colon
                          2. Fat Distribution Patterns And Health Risks
                            1. Gluteal-femoral obesity (hip and thigh) (typical female pattern of fat deposition)
                              1. Relatively low health risk
                              2. Abdominal (visceral) obesity (typical male pattern of fat deposition)
                                1. Associated with hypertriglyceridemia, low high density cholesterol and high low density cholesterol levels.
                                  1. Associated with an insulin resistant state (pre-diabetic)
                                    1. Associated with raised blood pressure.
                                  2. Waist Circumference as a Measure of Increased Health Risk
                                    1. Waist circumference can give an indication of fat located the abdominal region (and associated with greater risk of diabetes, CHD etc);
                                      1. ForCaucasians: Overweight: Men >94 cm; Women >80 cm Obese: men >102 cm; Women > 88cm Limited use in obesity
                                    2. Consequences: Economic
                                      1. Australia 2008- Total $58.2 billion, Direct costs $8.2 billion, Indirect costs (lost wellbeing/ “burden of disease”) $49.9 billion
                                      2. Benefits of Management of Obesity
                                        1. Benefits of a 10 kg weight loss
                                          1. Over 20% fall in mortality, Over 30% fall in diabetes-related deaths, Fall of 10mmHg systolic and 20 mmHg diastolic blood pressure, Fall of 10% total cholesterol, Fall of 30% triglycerides, Improved lung function
                                        2. Causes
                                          1. Genetic Factors
                                            1. Eating and appetite
                                              1. Sedentary lifestyle
                                                1. Psychosocial factors
                                                2. Treatments in Adults
                                                  1. Options for weight loss:
                                                    1. Calorie reduced diets, Behavioural interventions, Exercise, Pharmacotherapy, Surgery, Health at Every Size (HAES) – focus on weight neutral outcomes
                                                    2. Cognitive Behavioural Interventions
                                                      1. Assessment:
                                                        1. Assessing motivations
                                                          1. Collect relevant health information
                                                            1. Self-monitoring:
                                                              1. Monitoring, diet diary recording food consumed, where, when, feelings, thoughts before, feelings thoughts after
                                                                1. Cornerstone of behavioural treatment and strong predictor of success
                                                                  1. Monitoring exercise and other relevant lifestyle issues
                                                                    1. Look for eating and activity patterns, triggers
                                                                    2. Clinicians often more ‘resistant’ than clients
                                                                  2. Goal Setting
                                                                    1. Long-term outcome goals
                                                                      1. Weight goals - realistic
                                                                        1. Primary goals - target directly (e.g. health outcome so how to measure)
                                                                        2. Short-term behavioural goals
                                                                          1. Nutrition
                                                                            1. Physical activity
                                                                              1. Behavioural strategies (to manage barriers)
                                                                            2. Other Approaches
                                                                              1. Stimulus control (make healthy choice the easy option
                                                                                1. Problem solving (problem identification and plan development)
                                                                                  1. Cognitive restructuring (addressing unhelpful beliefs and thought patterns)
                                                                                2. Health Eating Pattern
                                                                                  1. Regularising eating
                                                                                    1. Regular eating, healthy meals and snacks, Meal planning, Break dieting mentality, Continue monitoring, Listening to your body, Emphasize healthy lifestyle change, Nutritional advice
                                                                                    2. Emotional Triggers to Eating
                                                                                      1. Identify non-hungry eating patterns
                                                                                        1. Negative moods that might encourage eating
                                                                                          1. Negative self-thoughts that might encourage eating
                                                                                            1. Challenging negative thoughts
                                                                                              1. Food as a “mood regulator”
                                                                                            2. Hormones, Satiety and Hunger
                                                                                              1. Some hormones send messages from the gut to the brain to signal hunger. These include: Ghrelin
                                                                                                1. Some hormones send messages from the gut to the brain to signal satiety. These include: Leptin , Amylin, Cholecystokinin (CCK), Peptide YY
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