184.108.40.206 Mothers Mental health is stable. She cares about her
pregnancy and is careful of what she eats and
researches drugs she may need to take during her
pregnancy. She loves her child before it is born.
220.127.116.11 The mother has a supportive family and social network.
She will ask for help for any mental health concerns.
18.104.22.168 SECURE: The child is distressed when the caregiver leaves and happy when they are back. The
infant is happy to Explore when with his/her parents and uses the parents as a secure base they
seek comfort from. The parent is quick to respond to the childs need and is both positive and
sensitive. Parent adapts with the child's needs.
22.214.171.124.1 Attachment Theory
126.96.36.199.1.1 The theory of how people form and maintain relationships.
188.8.131.52.1.1.1 Internal Working Model
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 A persons view of themselves and how others perceive them. A
positive attachment with parents correlates a positive view of the
1.2.2 Erikson Stage: Trust vs. Mistrust
18.104.22.168 Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
22.214.171.124 Birth to 18 months: Children develop a sense of trust
when caregivers provide reliability, care, and affection.
Lack thereof will lead to mistrust
1.2.3 Protective Factors
126.96.36.199 Quality of caregiving is high. Parents Internal Working
models are positive. The child's temperament is passive
and family circumstances are healthy.
1.2.4 Early Childhood
188.8.131.52 Erikson Stage: Autonomy vs.
Shame and Doubt
184.108.40.206.1 PURPOSE: 2years - 3years: Child needs to feel a sense of control over their physical skills and
sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of Autonomy and failure mistrust.
220.127.116.11 Parenting Style
18.104.22.168.1.1 Reasonable demands from the parent,
consistently reinforced with acceptance of the
child. Children do well both socially and
22.214.171.124 Preschool Age
126.96.36.199.1 Erikson Stage: Initiative vs. Guilt
188.8.131.52.1.1 EXPLORATION: 3-5years. Children need to start exerting
power and control over their environment. Too
much power results in disapproval which leads
184.108.40.206.2 Middle Childhood
220.127.116.11.2.1 Erikson Stage: Industry vs. Inferiority
18.104.22.168.2.1.1 COMPETENCE: 6 - 12years. Coping with new social demands as
well as academic demands.
22.214.171.124.2.2 Schools as socializing agents
126.96.36.199.2.3.1 School, Family and Peers
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 The child has positive reinforcement and smooth interaction
between the three socializing contexts
220.127.116.11.2.4.1 Erikson Stage: Identity vs. Role Confusion
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS: Development of the
sense of self and personal identity
126.96.36.199.2.4.2 Young Adulthood
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 Middle Adulthood
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.1 Older Adulthood
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.1.1 Erikson Stage: Integrity vs. despair
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.1.1.1 Judging ones life to have been meaningful. Facing death
without fear is called wisdom.
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.1.2 Life Review
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.1.2.1 An individual will begin to reflect on their life and
create a narrative to make sense of it. This is the struggle of integrity vs despair.
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 Structured Review: Haight & Haight 2007: The intentional Process of life review
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1.3 At this stage a persons social convoy is disrupted by loss. An
individual may need to accept the care of their child, nursing
home or aid to live at home. They may also need to deal with
the illness of a partner. An individual may also become a
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1.4 Protective Factors
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.1.4.1 A positive frame of mind and resiliency to accept these changes helps those in older adulthood to
live healthier and longer lives. Staying socially connected and active is also a major part of
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1.5 Theories for successful aging: Continuity theory:
Competence-Environmental Press Model:Activity theory vs disengagement theory
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.2 Protective Factors
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.2.1 Resilience is very important to successful incur Generativity. Lack of resiliency will
lead to stagnation. Midlife correction which can appear as 'midlife crisis' a myth
builds on the natural ability of the individual to handle stress and change well. Those
who don't may experience a breakdown.
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.3 Erikson Stage: Generativity vs. Stagnation
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.3.1 Have I left my mark?: Starting to show concern for the next generation. Some do this by
having childrenand others by such thing as teach and giving back
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.4 Empty Nest: As children leave home the dynamics
between parents and children change. Parents may
find themselves 'free' in the sense they are able to
live their life more fully.
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.5 Becoming A grandparent: An individual may find themselves a grandparent in this stage and
this may become a time of reciprocal benefit as they pass on their knowledge to their
grandchildren therefore adding meaning to their life.
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 Protective Factors
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.1 Reducing the gap between the possible and ideal self helps maintain self-esteem and
positive self concept. Doing things 'on time' by comparing their progress to others helps
maintain happiness in this stage.
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 Erikson Stage: Intimacy vs. Isolation
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1 A model of friendship is established (Levinson) and so is a social and support network. Individuals begin exploring what they want there relationships to look
like. An individual may experience there first serious relationships and have children.
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 Becoming an Adult: Roles within the house will change as well as a parents expectations
surrounding their child. An individual may have cultural rites of passage as they emerge into
adulthood. Exploration of jobs will occur and an individual will become more self-reliant
rather than relying on a parent.
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 Possible Selves where an individual starts to work towards their ultimate 'self'. This may be
through continued study, sport or applying themselves at work.
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 Social Clock: An individual will start to tag the time to do things in life by
creating personal timetable to achieve goals in line with others their age.
184.108.40.206 Emergence of emotions. THe development
of 'me' and 'mine' fosters self-conscious
220.127.116.11 Protective Factors
18.104.22.168.1 A nurturing childcare center. A goodness of fit with
caregivers and the temperament of the child. The
child is able to positively self-regulate emotions, has
good social skills, can be creative and use conflict
2 Lifespan Perspective
2.1 A pattern of complex developmental change throughout the lifespan from birth to death. It involves the managemenet of
pain and loss throughout life, it is multi directional and plastic. It is contextual and needs to be studied by many disciplines to help understand it.
2.2 Self and Identity
2.2.1 Attachment and Relationships
22.214.171.124 Social Context and Socialization
126.96.36.199.1 An individual changes constantly throughout the lifespan via the experiences they are
subject to in their life. This happens within the context of their close relationships, or
microsystem, how an individual experiences the complex interactions between their
peers, family and school, or mesosytem, and how they experience the world around
them, or the macrosystem. An individual learns from being told information that is
enforced by rules, from observing what is happening around them and learning with
those around them, such as learning how to cook with your parents. This life-complexity
teaches an individual how to navigate their environments.
188.8.131.52 Attachment here can be described as being the strong emotional ties an individual has with their primary
caregivers and the behavioral system through which a person regulates their emotions and actions via their
subjectivity to their attachment and the consequences within an individuals Internal Working Model. Our
childhood attachments and experiences shape our lives and have long lasting effects on how we see our selves
2.2.2 The way in which we understand ourself and how we fit into the world. A person will dream
of their 'possible selves' and work towards it in their life. An individual can have both a self
they fear of becoming as well as a self they ultimately want to be.