Human Development

melaniefleet87
Mind Map by melaniefleet87, updated more than 1 year ago
melaniefleet87
Created by melaniefleet87 about 5 years ago
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Human Development
1 OUTCOME: Successfully Age
1.1 Prenatal Development
1.1.1 Protective Factors
1.1.1.1 Mothers Mental health is stable. She cares about her pregnancy and is careful of what she eats and researches drugs she may need to take during her pregnancy. She loves her child before it is born.
1.1.1.2 The mother has a supportive family and social network. She will ask for help for any mental health concerns.
1.2 Infancy
1.2.1 Attachment
1.2.1.1 SECURE: The child is distressed when the caregiver leaves and happy when they are back. The infant is happy to Explore when with his/her parents and uses the parents as a secure base they seek comfort from. The parent is quick to respond to the childs need and is both positive and sensitive. Parent adapts with the child's needs.
1.2.1.1.1 Attachment Theory
1.2.1.1.1.1 The theory of how people form and maintain relationships.
1.2.1.1.1.1.1 Internal Working Model
1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 A persons view of themselves and how others perceive them. A positive attachment with parents correlates a positive view of the self.
1.2.2 Erikson Stage: Trust vs. Mistrust
1.2.2.1 Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
1.2.2.2 Birth to 18 months: Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliability, care, and affection. Lack thereof will lead to mistrust
1.2.3 Protective Factors
1.2.3.1 Quality of caregiving is high. Parents Internal Working models are positive. The child's temperament is passive and family circumstances are healthy.
1.2.4 Early Childhood
1.2.4.1 Erikson Stage: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
1.2.4.1.1 PURPOSE: 2years - 3years: Child needs to feel a sense of control over their physical skills and sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of Autonomy and failure mistrust.
1.2.4.2 Parenting Style
1.2.4.2.1 Authoritarian
1.2.4.2.1.1 Reasonable demands from the parent, consistently reinforced with acceptance of the child. Children do well both socially and academically
1.2.4.3 Preschool Age
1.2.4.3.1 Erikson Stage: Initiative vs. Guilt
1.2.4.3.1.1 EXPLORATION: 3-5years. Children need to start exerting power and control over their environment. Too much power results in disapproval which leads to guilt
1.2.4.3.2 Middle Childhood
1.2.4.3.2.1 Erikson Stage: Industry vs. Inferiority
1.2.4.3.2.1.1 COMPETENCE: 6 - 12years. Coping with new social demands as well as academic demands.
1.2.4.3.2.2 Schools as socializing agents
1.2.4.3.2.2.1
1.2.4.3.2.3 Mesosytem
1.2.4.3.2.3.1 School, Family and Peers
1.2.4.3.2.3.1.1 The child has positive reinforcement and smooth interaction between the three socializing contexts
1.2.4.3.2.4 Adolescence
1.2.4.3.2.4.1 Erikson Stage: Identity vs. Role Confusion
1.2.4.3.2.4.1.1 SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS: Development of the sense of self and personal identity
1.2.4.3.2.4.2 Young Adulthood
1.2.4.3.2.4.2.1 Middle Adulthood
1.2.4.3.2.4.2.1.1 Older Adulthood
1.2.4.3.2.4.2.1.1.1 Erikson Stage: Integrity vs. despair
1.2.4.3.2.4.2.1.1.1.1 Judging ones life to have been meaningful. Facing death without fear is called wisdom.
1.2.4.3.2.4.2.1.1.2 Life Review
1.2.4.3.2.4.2.1.1.2.1 An individual will begin to reflect on their life and create a narrative to make sense of it. This is the struggle of integrity vs despair.
1.2.4.3.2.4.2.1.1.2.1.1 Structured Review: Haight & Haight 2007: The intentional Process of life review
1.2.4.3.2.4.2.1.1.3 At this stage a persons social convoy is disrupted by loss. An individual may need to accept the care of their child, nursing home or aid to live at home. They may also need to deal with the illness of a partner. An individual may also become a great-great grandparent.
1.2.4.3.2.4.2.1.1.4 Protective Factors
1.2.4.3.2.4.2.1.1.4.1 A positive frame of mind and resiliency to accept these changes helps those in older adulthood to live healthier and longer lives. Staying socially connected and active is also a major part of successfully aging
1.2.4.3.2.4.2.1.1.5 Theories for successful aging: Continuity theory: Competence-Environmental Press Model:Activity theory vs disengagement theory
1.2.4.3.2.4.2.1.2 Protective Factors
1.2.4.3.2.4.2.1.2.1 Resilience is very important to successful incur Generativity. Lack of resiliency will lead to stagnation. Midlife correction which can appear as 'midlife crisis' a myth builds on the natural ability of the individual to handle stress and change well. Those who don't may experience a breakdown.
1.2.4.3.2.4.2.1.3 Erikson Stage: Generativity vs. Stagnation
1.2.4.3.2.4.2.1.3.1 Have I left my mark?: Starting to show concern for the next generation. Some do this by having childrenand others by such thing as teach and giving back
1.2.4.3.2.4.2.1.4 Empty Nest: As children leave home the dynamics between parents and children change. Parents may find themselves 'free' in the sense they are able to live their life more fully.
1.2.4.3.2.4.2.1.5 Becoming A grandparent: An individual may find themselves a grandparent in this stage and this may become a time of reciprocal benefit as they pass on their knowledge to their grandchildren therefore adding meaning to their life.
1.2.4.3.2.4.2.2 Protective Factors
1.2.4.3.2.4.2.2.1 Reducing the gap between the possible and ideal self helps maintain self-esteem and positive self concept. Doing things 'on time' by comparing their progress to others helps maintain happiness in this stage.
1.2.4.3.2.4.2.3 Erikson Stage: Intimacy vs. Isolation
1.2.4.3.2.4.2.3.1 A model of friendship is established (Levinson) and so is a social and support network. Individuals begin exploring what they want there relationships to look like. An individual may experience there first serious relationships and have children.
1.2.4.3.2.4.2.4 Becoming an Adult: Roles within the house will change as well as a parents expectations surrounding their child. An individual may have cultural rites of passage as they emerge into adulthood. Exploration of jobs will occur and an individual will become more self-reliant rather than relying on a parent.
1.2.4.3.2.4.2.5 Possible Selves where an individual starts to work towards their ultimate 'self'. This may be through continued study, sport or applying themselves at work.
1.2.4.3.2.4.2.6 Social Clock: An individual will start to tag the time to do things in life by creating personal timetable to achieve goals in line with others their age.
1.2.4.4 Emergence of emotions. THe development of 'me' and 'mine' fosters self-conscious emotion.
1.2.4.5 Protective Factors
1.2.4.5.1 A nurturing childcare center. A goodness of fit with caregivers and the temperament of the child. The child is able to positively self-regulate emotions, has good social skills, can be creative and use conflict resolution.
2 Lifespan Perspective
2.1 A pattern of complex developmental change throughout the lifespan from birth to death. It involves the managemenet of pain and loss throughout life, it is multi directional and plastic. It is contextual and needs to be studied by many disciplines to help understand it.
2.2 Self and Identity
2.2.1 Attachment and Relationships
2.2.1.1 Social Context and Socialization
2.2.1.1.1 An individual changes constantly throughout the lifespan via the experiences they are subject to in their life. This happens within the context of their close relationships, or microsystem, how an individual experiences the complex interactions between their peers, family and school, or mesosytem, and how they experience the world around them, or the macrosystem. An individual learns from being told information that is enforced by rules, from observing what is happening around them and learning with those around them, such as learning how to cook with your parents. This life-complexity teaches an individual how to navigate their environments.
2.2.1.2 Attachment here can be described as being the strong emotional ties an individual has with their primary caregivers and the behavioral system through which a person regulates their emotions and actions via their subjectivity to their attachment and the consequences within an individuals Internal Working Model. Our childhood attachments and experiences shape our lives and have long lasting effects on how we see our selves
2.2.2 The way in which we understand ourself and how we fit into the world. A person will dream of their 'possible selves' and work towards it in their life. An individual can have both a self they fear of becoming as well as a self they ultimately want to be.
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