BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

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Mind Map by zoe_whitwell, updated more than 1 year ago
zoe_whitwell
Created by zoe_whitwell about 5 years ago
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Biological basis of psychopathology

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BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
1 Glia
1.1 Astrocytes
1.1.1 Bond with capillaries to form the BBB
1.1.2 Surrond neurons and hold them in place
1.1.3 Supply nutrients and oxygen
1.1.4 Synaptic transmission (clearance of NT and release gliotransmitters)
1.2 Oligodendrocytes
1.2.1 Produce myelin for axons
1.2.2 Insulation
1.3 Microglia
1.3.1 immune cells
1.3.2 Destroy pathogens and remove dead neurons
1.4 Ependymal cells
1.4.1 Line cerebral ventricles
1.4.2 Cilia: circulate the CSF
2 Neurotransmitters
2.1 Dysregulation of NT systems may be important in the physiology of neuropsychiatric disease
2.1.1 Glutamate/dopamine (schizophrenia)
2.1.1.1 The Dopamine Hypothesis: symptoms due to disturbed and hyperactive dopaminergic signal transduction
2.1.1.2 Glutamate Hypothesis: schziophrenia reflects diminished activation of NMDA receptors in the brain
2.1.2 GABA (anxiety/panic)
2.1.3 Serotonin (depression)
2.1.3.1 Monoamine Hypothesis: dysregulation of the serotonin system
2.1.3.1.1 depression associated with deficiency of catecholamines (NE) at functionally important adrenergic receptor sites
2.1.3.1.2 Serotonin Biosynthesis
2.1.3.1.2.1 L-tryptophan synthesized
2.1.3.1.2.1.1 Then hydrolysed - becomes 5-HTP
2.1.3.1.2.1.1.1 Carboxylased by L-amino acid decarboxylase and becomes serotinin (5-HT)
2.1.3.1.2.1.1.1.1 Oxidation by monoamine oxidase to the corresponding aldehyde
2.1.3.1.2.1.1.1.1.1 Oxidation by aldehyde hydrogenase to 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)
3 Neuroanatomy
3.1 Schizophrenia
3.1.1 Ventricular enlargement
3.1.2 Grey matter volume decrease
3.1.2.1 First episode: hippocampaus, thalamus, amygdala, anterior cingulate
3.1.2.2 Chronic: medial and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left suprerior temporal gyrus
3.1.3 White matter abnormalities
3.1.3.1 First episode: inferior longitudinal fasciculus
3.1.3.2 Chronic: right forceps, left forceps minor, splenium of corpus callosum
3.1.4 Microcircuitry changes
3.1.4.1 Cellular disarray in the hippocampus
3.1.4.2 Pyramidal cells reduced in size and packed more densely
3.1.5 Functional neuroanatomical changes (hypofrontality)
3.2 GAD
3.2.1 Amygdala hyperactivation
4 Neuropharmacology
4.1 Agonist: binds to the receptor and initiates a response like that of the endogenous NT
4.1.1 Anxiety
4.1.1.1 Buspirone: 5-HT1A receptor agonists
4.2 Antagonist: (usually a drug) binds the the receptor and interferes with the action of the endogenous NT
4.2.1 Psychosis
4.2.1.1 Chlorpromazine: DA receptor antagonist
4.2.1.2 PCP: non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist
4.2.2 Depression
4.2.2.1 Iproniazid: MAOI
4.2.2.2 Imipramine: increases brain levels of catecholamines and 5-HT (tricyclic antidepressants)
4.2.2.3 SSRI's
4.2.3 Anxiety
4.2.3.1 Benzodiazepines
4.2.3.1.1 Bind to GABA receptors
4.2.3.2 SSRI's
4.2.3.3 Pregabalin: Ca2+ receptor antagonist
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