Enzymes

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Mind Map by ???????????, updated more than 1 year ago
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Biology (B4) Mind Map on Enzymes, created by ??????????? on 11/26/2013.
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Enzymes
1 What do enzymes do?
1.1 Living things have thousands of different chemical reactions going on inside them all the time.
1.2 These reactions need to be carefully controlled so that you get the right amount of substances
1.3 You can usually make a reaction happen more quickly be raising the temperature
1.3.1 This would speed up the useful reactions but also the unwanted ones
1.3.2 There is also a limit to how far you can raise the temperature
1.3.2.1 This is because raising the temperature too far in a living creature before its cells start getting damaged
1.4 Living things produce enzymes which act as biological catalysts
1.4.1 Enzymes reduce the need for high temperatures and you only have enzymes to speed up the useful chemical reactions in the body
2 What is a enzyme?
2.1 An enzyme is a protein
2.2 It is made up of chains of amino acids
2.2.1 These chins are unique shapes, which do different jobs
3 Why do enzymes have unique shapes
3.1 Chemical reactions usually involve things either being split apart or joined together
3.2 Every enzyme has a unique shape that fits onto the substance or substances involved in a reaction
3.3 Enzymes are really picky, they usually only catalyse one reaction
3.4 This is because for the enzyme to work each substance has to fit its special shape
3.5 If a substance doesn't match the enzyme's shape then the reaction won't be catalyst
4 How temp affects enzymes
4.1 Changing the temp changes the rate of an enzyme-catalysed reactions
4.2 Like with any reaction a higher temp increases the rate at first
4.3 But if it gets too hot some of the bonds holding the enzymes together break
4.3.1 This destroys the enzyme's special shape and so it won't work any more(this is known as denatured)
4.4 Enzymes in the human body normally work best at around 37 degrees
5 How pH affects enzymes
5.1 The pH affects enzymes because if its too high or low the bonds holding it is interfered with
5.2 This changes the shape and denatures the enzymes
5.3 All enzymes have an optimum pH that it works best at
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